25 found

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  1. Sophie Botros (2015). Hume, Justice and Sympathy: A Reversal of the Natural Order? Diametros 44:110-139.
    Hume’s view that the object of moral feeling is a natural passion, motivating action, causes problems for justice. There is apparently no appropriate natural motive, whilst, if there were, its “partiality” would unfit it to ground the requisite impartial approval. We offer a critique of such solutions as that the missing non-moral motive is enlightened self-interest , or that it is feigned , or that it consists in a just disposition . We reject Cohon’s postulation of a moral motive for (...)
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  2. Olga Dryla (2015). Finansowanie testów genetycznych ze źródeł publicznych. Diametros 44:1-19.
    One of the signs of the rapid development of medical genetics is a gradual increase in the number of genetic tests available. Different aspects of this phenomenon have been addressed and debated in the source literature, but so far relatively little has been said about the obligation to provide equal access – in the social context – to selected kinds of tests. In this article, I attempt to reconstruct those few suggestions, dealing with the principles of funding genetic tests from (...)
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  3. Edward W. Glowienka (2015). David Hume: Unwitting Cosmopolitan? Diametros 44:153-172.
    If Hume is considered cosmopolitan in his ethics at all, he is said to be so through his anti-mercantilist approach to commerce. Prevailing commercial interpretations attribute to Hume a cosmopolitanism that is best described as instrumental and supervenient. I argue that Hume’s principles lead to a cosmopolitan ethic that is more demanding than commercial interpretations recognize. Hume’s cosmopolitanism is more than merely supervenient and its instrumentality is such that cosmopolitan regard becomes inseparable from healthy patriotic concern. I show sympathy and (...)
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  4. Aleksandra Głos (2015). Solidarity in the Legal Frames. Diametros 44:204-222.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of solidarity and its proper position in the legal frames, with particular focus on health care. Solidarity is often identified with welfare arrangements and social guarantees. In this institutional version, it tends to humiliate citizens and restrict their entrepreneurship. Moreover, administrative solidarity is unable to recognize the actual needs of the most vulnerable members of society, which should be one of its primary concerns. Solidarity, in its original meaning, understood as (...)
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  5. Andrzej Kapusta (2015). O roli myślenia technologicznego w psychiatrii współczesnej. Diametros 44:45-55.
    The emergence of new technologies has had a significant impact on the development of modern psychiatry. Brain scanning, biochemical analysis, the search for genetic markers, and the development of psychopharmacology have had a great influence on the way we understand the nature of mental disorders and the role and place of mental health specialists. The article aims at presenting the consequences of a technical approach in psychiatry, giving examples of such an approach and proposing a critical attitude to this approach (...)
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  6. Piotr Grzegorz Nowak (2015). Ograniczanie niedoboru narządów. System Aktywnej Rejestracji Dawców jako alternatywa dla polskiej regulacji sprzeciwu. Diametros 44:56-77.
    In the article I argue for replacing the opt-out system of organ donation, currently applied in Poland, with the Active Donor Registration system . The basic idea of the ADR system is to send a special form to all adult citizens, which would give them an opportunity to consent or dissent to the removal of organs, or to delegate their decision to their next of kin. Granting priority to declared donors – an additional assumption of ADR – would make it (...)
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  7. Marek Olejniczak (2015). Jakiej sprawiedliwości wolno oczekiwać od lekarza? Diametros 44:78-88.
    The essential objective of the paper is to demonstrate the complexity of issues related to justice in the medical profession. The author claims that the virtue of justice as the foundation of a good doctor's moral attitude and the concept of justice in allocating medical goods are of primary importance. The most important thesis presented in the paper is that even if the so-called social justice needs to be complied with in the public healthcare system, it has nothing to do (...)
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  8. Jakub Pawlikowski (2015). Ewolucja koncepcji świadomej zgody w kontekście badań naukowych z użyciem ludzkiego materiału biologicznego. Diametros 44:89-109.
    The development of research based on human biological material has contributed to a lively debate on the concept of informed consent in these studies, particularly its scope, form and length of validity. The biggest disputes and doubts concern the range of consent for research that will be conducted in the future, whose aim and place are unknown at the time of the sample collection, as are the future researchers and the ability to use the previously collected materials again. This situation (...)
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  9. Jacqueline Taylor (2015). Justice, Sympathy and the Command of Our Esteem. Diametros 44:173-188.
    I have shown here the different roles that sympathy plays in the accounts of justice in the Treatise and Enquiry . In the former work, a redirected sympathy naturally extends our concern, and subsequently our moral approval or blame, to all those included within the scope of the rules of justice. In the Enquiry , we find this same progress of sentiments, but Hume’s introduction of the sentiment of humanity allows him to make a stronger case for the importance of (...)
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  10. Margreet van der Cingel (2015). Why Compassion Still Needs Hume Today. Diametros 44:140-152.
    Over the past years the relevance of compassion for society and specific practices such as in healthcare is becoming a focus of attention. Philosophers and scientists discuss theoretical descriptions and defining characteristics of the phenomenon and its benefits and pitfalls. However, there are hardly any empirical studies which substantiate these writings in specific societal areas. Besides, compassion may be in the eye of attention today but has always been of interest for many contemporary philosophers as well as philosophers in the (...)
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  11. Ivana Zagorac (2015). Hume's Humanity and the Protection of the Vulnerable. Diametros 44:189-203.
    It is well known that Hume excluded inferior rational beings, who are incapable of resistance and weak resentment, from his concept of justice. This resulted in a critique of Hume’s theory of justice, as it would not protect those who were the most vulnerable against ill treatment. The typical answer to this critique is that Hume excluded inferior rational beings from the concept of justice, but not from that of morality, and that he considered their protection to be the task (...)
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  12. Jadwiga Łuczak-Wawrzyniak & Joanna Agnieszka Haberko (2015). Dobrodziejstwo nowoczesnych technik wspomaganej medycznie prokreacji czy problem rodziny i dziecka? Uwagi na tle projektu ustawy o leczeniu niepłodności. Diametros 44:20-44.
    The use of assisted reproductive technology is becoming more and more common nowadays and the procedures that a few years ago would be seen as experimental have now become basic benefits. The present text covers the issues of risks and conflicts faced by family members and related with the use of technology in the process of conceiving and giving birth to a child. The authors pay special attention to the possible use of foreign germ cells in the conception of a (...)
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  13. Giovanni De Grandis (2015). Rescuing Solidarity From Its Carers. A Response to Professor ter Meulen. Diametros 43:28-43.
    The paper points out three serious problems in Ruud ter Meulen’s view of solidarity and of its role in healthcare ethics. First, it is not clear whether and to what extent ter Meulen expects normative concepts to be rooted in existing social practices: his criticism of liberal theories of justice seems to imply a different view on this issue than his implicit assumption that normative concepts are independent from social and historical trends. Second, it is not clear at which level (...)
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  14. Szymon Nowak (2015). Wittgenstein 1929-1930 – problem dwóch kolorów w tym samym miejscu. Diametros 43:118-136.
    Wittgenstein introduced his claim about colour incompatibility originally in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus , where he stated that there could be only one colour in one place and time. It is commonly believed that Wittgenstein abandoned his conception of logical atomism when he realized the consequences of this claim. The aim of this article is to provide an interpretation of the colour incompatibility claim in terms of Wittgenstein’s phenomenology. I will focus on two works of great significance for the claim: Some (...)
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  15. Ruth Chadwick (2015). Response to Ruud ter Meulen. Diametros 43:21-27.
    In addition to thinking about the meanings of solidarity, it is important to address how solidarity of the appropriate sort can be cultivated. Possibilities include the transformative power of key individuals or events; and the role of institutions. In health care it is suggested that a combination of the two strategies is required. Professional conduct includes not only acting in 'face to face' delivery, but also engaging with those institutions which enable or disable certain ways of acting, so that they (...)
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  16. Leonard M. Fleck (2015). Just Solidarity: The Key to Fair Health Care Rationing. Diametros 43:44-54.
    I agree with Professor ter Meulen that there is no need to make a forced choice between “justice” and “solidarity” when it comes to determining what should count as fair access to needed health care. But he also asserts that solidarity is more fundamental than justice. That claim needs critical assessment. Ter Meulen recognizes that the concept of solidarity has been criticized for being excessively vague. He addresses this criticism by introducing the more precise notion of “humanitarian solidarity.” However, I (...)
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  17. David Heyd (2015). Solidarity: A Local, Partial and Reflective Emotion. Diametros 43:55-64.
    Solidarity is analysed in contradistinction from two adjacent concepts - justice and sympathy. It is argued that unlike the other two, it is essentially local , partial and reflective . Although not to be confused with justice, solidarity is presented as underlying any contract-based system of justice, since it defines the contours of the group within which the contract is taking place. Finally, due to the fact that health is a typically universal value and being a primary good it is (...)
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  18. Patricia Illingworth & Wendy E. Parmet (2015). Solidarity and Health: A Public Goods Justification. Diametros 43:65-71.
    This comment on Professor ter Meulen's paper, "Solidarity and Justice in Health Care," offers additional perspectives on solidarity's importance for health. Noting the findings of social epidemiology, the paper explains that health has important public good dimensions. It is both non-rivlalrous because one person's health does not diminish another's, and it is largely determined by non-excludable access goods, including social networks, social determinants, and public health efforts. The public good dimension of health underscores the mutual dependence and shared stake that (...)
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  19. Maria Marcinkowska-Rosół (2015). Apeiron jako substrat? Najstarsza krytyka monizmu Anaksymandra oraz jej metodologiczne uwarunkowania. Diametros 43:103-117.
    The article deals with the oldest criticism of Anaximander’s monism, for which we have evidence, found in John Philoponus’ commentary on the first book of Aristotle’s Physics . Philoponus’ argumentation is analytically examined and explained, its premises brought to light and its conclusions evaluated. It is shown how his inquiry, although anticipating modern discussions about the classification of Anaximander’s doctrine in terms of ‘monism’ and ‘pluralism’, differs from the contemporary approach to the problem when it comes to both results and (...)
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  20. Thomas Nys (2015). Justice and Solidarity: Compound, Confound, Confuse. Diametros 43:72-78.
    In response to Ruud ter Meulen’s contribution, it is argued that, although the relationship between these concepts is both tight and complex, solidarity should be carefully distinguished from justice. Although ter Meulen wants to defend a normative conception of solidarity, the relation to its descriptive component is not always very clear. As a normative concept it should not collapse into that of justice; and as a descriptive notion it is obviously defective. In order to successfully navigate between these unhappy alternatives, (...)
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  21. Marek Rosiak (2015). W sprawie „ontologii kulturowej” Barbary Tuchańskiej. Diametros 43:158-170.
    Remarks on Barbara Tuchańska’s “Cultural Ontology” , Diametros – An Online Journal of Philosophy, no. 41 , B. Tuchańska, “ Cultural Ontology: the Cultural Constitution of Being ” , Diametros – An Online Journal of Philosophy, no. 42 ).
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  22. Adriana Schetz (2015). Ideomotoryczna teoria działania w ujęciu Williama Jamesa. Diametros 43:137-157.
    The paper discusses the view of William James on the contribution of will to our decisions to act. According to James, our voluntary action, which for him is strongly connected with an intention to do something, occurs when the subject of the action knows its sensorimotor effects. An attempt has been made to defend James’ view and rebut popular criticisms aiming to undermine the role of knowledge in voluntary action. The paper also offers to identify a contemporary context for the (...)
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  23. Ruud ter Meulen (2015). Solidarity and Justice in Health Care. A Critical Analysis of Their Relationship. Diametros 43:1-20.
    This article tries to analyze the meaning and relevance of the concept of solidarity as compared to the concept of justice. While ‘justice’ refers to rights and duties , the concept of solidarity refers to relations of personal commitment and recognition . The article wants to answer the question whether solidarity and liberal justice should be seen as mutually exclusive or whether both approaches should be regarded as complementary to each other. The paper starts with an analysis of liberal theories (...)
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  24. Michał Zabdyr-Jamróz (2015). The Veil of Ignorance and Solidarity in Healthcare: Finding Compassion in the Original Position. Diametros 43:79-95.
    In this paper I will juxtapose the concept of the veil of ignorance – a fundamental premise of Rawlsian justice as fairness – and solidarity in the context of the organisation of a healthcare system. My hypothesis is that the veil of ignorance could be considered a rhetorical tool that supports compassion solidarity. In the concept of the veil of ignorance, I will find some crucial features of compassion solidarity within the Rawlsian concept of “reciprocity” – located between “impartiality” and (...)
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  25. Wojciech Załuski (2015). Solidarity: Its Levels of Operation, Relationship to Justice, and Social Causes. Diametros 43:96-102.
    The paper provides an analysis of the relationship between the concepts of justice and solidarity. The point of departure of the analysis is Ruud ter Meulen’s claim that these concepts are different but mutually complementary, i.e. are two sides of the same coin. In the paper two alternative accounts of the relationship are proposed. According to the first one, solidarity can be defined in terms of justice, i.e. is a special variety of liberal justice, viz. social liberal justice, which, apart (...)
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