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  1. Charles M. Bourne & Rethy K. Chhem (2014). War Medicine as Springboard for Early Knowledge Construction in Radiology. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):53-70.
    Shortly after X-ray technology was discovered, it was utilized in war medicine. In this paper, the authors consider how the challenging context of war created fertile conditions for learning, as early radiologists were forced to find solutions to the unique problems posed during wartime. The “battlefield” became the “classroom” where radiologists constructed knowledge in X-ray instrumentation, methods, and education, as well as in medicine generally. Through an examination of two broad historical wartime examples, the authors illustrate how X-rays were used (...)
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  2. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2014). Paternal-Fetal Harm and Men’s Moral Duty to Use Contraception: Applying the Principles of Nonmaleficence and Beneficence to Men’s Reproductive Responsibility. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):1-13.
    Discussions of reproductive responsibility generally draw heavily upon the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. However, these principles are typically only applied to women due to the incorrect belief that only women can cause fetal harm. The cultural perception that women are likely to cause fetal and child harm is reflected in numerous social norms, policies, and laws. Conversely, there is little public discussion of men and fetal and child harm, which implies that men do not cause such harm. My goal (...)
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  3. Thomas Efferth, Mita Banerjee & Alfred Hornung (2014). Therapeutic Intervention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by Chinese Medicine: Perspectives for Transdisciplinary Cooperation Between Life Sciences and Humanities. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):71-89.
    Taking post-traumatic stress disorder as an example, we present a concept for transdisciplinary cooperation between life sciences and humanities. PTSD is defined as a long-term persisting anxiety disorder after severe psychological traumata. Initially recognized in war veterans, PTSD also appears in victims of crime and violence or survivors of natural catastrophes, e.g., earthquakes. We consider PTSD as a prototype topic to realize transdisciplinary projects, because this disease is multifacetted from different points of view. Based on physiological and molecular biological research (...)
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  4. Mathew George (2014). Mahesh Ananth: In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health: Nature, Norms and Human Biology. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):113-117.
    The concept of health has always been a debatable aspect when WHO defines it as ‘not merely an absence of disease but a state of physical, mental and social wellbeing’. The ambiguity implicit in the second part of the concept is still debatable. Health also described through capability approach situating within the context of Justice as well as productivity-based approach that uses DALY as a way to understand health, highlights the importance attached to the concept. In philosophy of medicine, the (...)
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  5. Yazan Abu Ghazal (2014). Perspectivity in Psychiatric Research: The Psychopathology of Schizophrenia in Postwar Germany. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):103-111.
    The reorganization of psychiatric knowledge at the turn of the twentieth century derived from Emil Kraepelin’s clinical classification of psychoses. Surprisingly, within just few years, Kraepelin’s simple dichotomy between dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis succeeded in giving psychiatry a new framework that is still used until the present day. Unexpectedly, Kraepelin’s simple clinical scheme based on the dichotomy replaced the significantly more differentiated nosography that dominated psychiatric research in the last three decades of the nineteenth century. Moreover, although all the (...)
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  6. Frank Kressing, Matthis Krischel & Heiner Fangerau (2014). The ‘Global Phylogeny’ and its Historical Legacy: A Critical Review of a Unified Theory of Human Biological and Linguistic Co-Evolution. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):15-27.
    In a critical review of late twentieth-century gene-culture co-evolutionary models labelled as ‘global phylogeny’, the authors present evidence for the long legacy of co-evolutionary theories in European-based thinking, highlighting that ideas of social and cultural evolution preceded the idea of biological evolution, linguistics played a dominant role in the formation of a unified theory of human co-evolution, and that co-evolutionary thinking was only possible due to perpetuated and renewed transdisciplinary reticulations between scholars of different disciplines—especially within the integrative framework of (...)
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  7. Amina Mire (2014). 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-Ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):119-129.
    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women’s skin, and replace it with (...)
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  8. Geoffrey Rees, Caitjan Gainty & Daniel Brauner (2014). Never a Simple Choice: Claude S. Beck and the Definitional Surplus in Decision-Making About CPR. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):91-101.
    Each time patients and their families are asked to make a decision about resuscitation, they are also asked to engage the political, social, and cultural concerns that have shaped its history. That history is exemplified in the career of Claude S. Beck, arguably the most influential researcher and teacher of resuscitation in the twentieth century. Careful review of Beck’s work discloses that the development and popularization of the techniques of resuscitation proceeded through a multiplication of definitions of death. CPR consequently (...)
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  9. Elizabeth Siegel Watkins (2014). An Investigation Into the Medicalization of Stress in the Twentieth Century. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):29-36.
    Stress presents an interesting case for the application of medicalization theory. From the 1950s to the 1980s, stress became an established, if not fully deciphered, component of the matrix within which illness developed, as understood by physicians and patients, scientists, and laypeople alike. While the various iterations of the medicalization thesis are useful for analyzing the information flows between the multiplicity of actors engaged in the production and interpretation of the stress concept, they cannot account for all aspects of the (...)
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  10. Heinrich Weßling (2014). Neurophysiology and the Problem of Human Free Will: A Case of “Nihil Sub Sole Novum”? [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):37-51.
    Over the last decade in Germany, a number of neuroscientists—and among them most prominently Wolf Singer—have claimed to be able to offer scientific evidence derived from neurophysiologic findings to conclusively negate the existence of human free will. In this paper, Singer’s position is examined according to its principal characteristics in order to answer the question whether it is a novel position as opposed to a position pertaining to one of the traditions of western philosophy and anthropology. Furthermore, we try to (...)
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