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Forthcoming articles
  1. Carlo Cellucci (forthcoming). Mathematical Beauty, Understanding, and Discovery. Foundations of Science:1-17.
    In a very influential paper Rota stresses the relevance of mathematical beauty to mathematical research, and claims that a piece of mathematics is beautiful when it is enlightening. He stops short, however, of explaining what he means by ‘enlightening’. This paper proposes an alternative approach, according to which a mathematical demonstration or theorem is beautiful when it provides understanding. Mathematical beauty thus considered can have a role in mathematical discovery because it can guide the mathematician in selecting which hypothesis to (...)
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  2. Boaz Miller (forthcoming). Scientific Consensus and Expert Testimony in Courts Lessons From the Bendectin Litigation. Foundations of Science:1-19.
    A consensus in a scientific community is often used as a resource for making informed ‎public-policy decisions and deciding between rival expert testimonies in legal trials. This ‎paper contains a social-epistemic analysis of the high-profile Bendectin drug controversy, ‎which was decided in the courtroom inter alia by deference to an emerging scientific ‎consensus about the safety of Bendectin. Drawing on Miller’s theory of knowledge based ‎consensus, I argue that the consensus in this case was not knowledge based, hence courts’ ‎deference (...)
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  3. Gustavo E. Romero (forthcoming). Present Time. Foundations of Science:1-11.
    The idea of a moving present or ‘now’ seems to form part of our most basic beliefs about reality. Such a present, however, is not reflected in any of our theories of the physical world. I show in this article that presentism, the doctrine that only what is present exists, is in conflict with modern relativistic cosmology and recent advances in neurosciences. I argue for a tenseless view of time, where what we call ‘the present’ is just an emergent secondary (...)
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  4. M. Seidel (forthcoming). Changing Society by Scientific Investigations? The Unexpected Shared Ground Between Early Sociology of Knowledge and the Vienna Circle. Foundations of Science:1-12.
    In this paper, I show that there are important but hitherto unnoticed similarities between key figures of the Vienna Circle and early defenders of sociology of knowledge. The similarities regard their stance on potential implications of the study of science for political and societal issues. I argue that notably Otto Neurath and Karl Mannheim are concerned with proposing a genuine political philosophy of science that is remarkably different from today’s emerging interest in the relation between science and society in philosophy (...)
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  5. Anton Froeyman, Laszlo Kosolosky & Jeroen Van Bouwel (forthcoming). Introduction: Social Epistemology Meets the Philosophy of the Humanities. Foundations of Science:1-13.
    From time to time, when I explain to a new acquaintance that I’m a philosopher of science, my interlocutor will nod agreeably and remark that that surely means I’m interested in the ethical status of various kinds of scientific research, the impact that science has had on our values, or the role that the sciences play in contemporary democracies. Although this common response hardly corresponds to what professional philosophers of science have done for the past decades, or even centuries, it (...)
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  6. L. King, B. Morgan-Olsen & J. Wong (forthcoming). Identifying Difference, Engaging Dissent: What is at Stake in Democratizing Knowledge? Foundations of Science:1-20.
    Several prominent voices have called for a democratization of science through deliberative processes that include a diverse range of perspectives and values. We bring these scholars into conversation with extant research on democratic deliberation in political theory and the social sciences. In doing so, we identify systematic barriers to the effectiveness of inclusive deliberation in both scientific and political settings. We are particularly interested in what we call misidentified dissent, where deliberations are starkly framed at the outset in terms of (...)
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  7. Hugh Lacey (forthcoming). Science, Respect for Nature, and Human Well-Being: Democratic Values and the Responsibilities of Scientists Today. Foundations of Science:1-17.
    The central question addressed is: How should scientific research be conducted so as to ensure that nature is respected and the well being of everyone everywhere enhanced? After pointing to the importance of methodological pluralism for an acceptable answer and to obstacles posed by characterizing scientific methodology too narrowly, which are reinforced by the ‘commercial-scientific ethos’, two additional questions are considered: How might research, conducted in this way, have impact on—and depend on—strengthening democratic values and practices? And: What is thereby (...)
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  8. Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi (forthcoming). God May Not Play Dice, But Human Observers Surely Do. Foundations of Science:1-29.
    We investigate indeterminism in physical observations. For this, we introduce a distinction between genuinely indeterministic (creation-1 and discovery-1) observational processes, and fully deterministic (creation-2 and discovery-2) observational processes, which we analyze by drawing a parallel between the localization properties of microscopic entities, like electrons, and the lateralization properties of macroscopic entities, like simple elastic bands. We show that by removing the randomness incorporated in certain of our observational processes, acquiring over them a better control, we also alter these processes in (...)
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  9. D. Aerts, J. Broekaert & L. Gabora (forthcoming). The Quantum Nature of Common Processes. Foundations of Science.
     
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  10. D. Aerts & L. Gabora (forthcoming). Towards a General Theory of Evolution. Foundations of Science.
     
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  11. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay, John G. Bennett & Megan D. Higgs (forthcoming). How to Undermine Underdetermination? Foundations of Science:1-21.
    The underdetermination thesis poses a threat to rational choice of scientific theories. We discuss two arguments for the thesis. One draws its strength from deductivism together with the existence thesis, and the other is defended on the basis of the failure of a reliable inductive method. We adopt a partially subjective/objective pragmatic Bayesian epistemology of science framework, and reject both arguments for the thesis. Thus, in science we are able to reinstate rational choice called into question by the underdetermination thesis.
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  12. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Conflict of Atomism and Creation-Science in History. Foundations of Science.
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  13. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Modeling the Real Structure of an Electron. Foundations of Science.
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  14. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Commentary on Sub-Quantum Physics. Foundations of Science.
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  15. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Science of Origins. Foundations of Science.
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  16. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Nuclear Binding and Half-Lives. Foundations of Science.
     
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  17. David L. Bergman & Dennis P. Allen Jr (forthcoming). Electron in the Ground Energy State—Part. Foundations of Science.
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  18. Mario Bunge (forthcoming). Does the Aharonov–Bohm Effect Occur? Foundations of Science:1-5.
    Aharonov and Bohm (Phys Rev 115:485–491, 1959) showed that, far from being merely a mathematical tool, the vector potential \(A\) can have a microphysical effect even when irrotational, in which case the magnetic field is null. Still, at first sight there is something weird about this situation. Do we have to admit a new force? I argue that there is no paradox in the potentials-formulation of electrodynamics, for it shows that, while “ \(\nabla \times A = 0\) ” represents a (...)
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  19. J. De Vos (forthcoming). The Death and the Resurrection of (Psy)Critique: The Case of Neuroeducation. Foundations of Science:1-17.
    A rapidly emerging hegemonic neuro-culture and a booming neural subjectivity signal the entry point for an inquiry into the status of the signifier neuro as a universal passe-partout. The wager of this paper is that the various (mis)appropriations of the neurosciences in the media and in academia itself point to something essential, if not structural, in connection with both the discipline of the neurosciences and the current socio-cultural and ideological climate. Starting from the case of neuroeducation (the application of neuroscience (...)
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  20. Börje Ekstig (forthcoming). Complexity, Natural Selection and the Evolution of Life and Humans. Foundations of Science:1-13.
    In this paper, I discuss the concept of complexity. I show that the principle of natural selection as acting on complexity gives a solution to the problem of reconciling the seemingly contradictory notion of generally increasing complexity and the observation that most species don’t follow such a trend. I suggest the process of evolution to be illustrated by means of a schematic diagram of complexity versus time, interpreted as a form of the Tree of Life. The suggested model implies that (...)
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  21. Miguel Ferrero & J. L. Sánchez-Gómez (forthcoming). Coming From Material Reality. Foundations of Science:1-14.
    In a previous essay we demonstrated that quantum mechanical formalism is incompatible with some necessary principles of the mechanism conception still dominant in the physicist’s community. In this paper we show, based on recent empirical evidence in quantum physics, the inevitability of abandoning the old mechanism conception and to construct a new one in which physical reality is seen as a representation which refers to relations established through operations made by us in a world that we are determining. This change (...)
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  22. Jens Harbecke (forthcoming). Regularity Constitution and the Location of Mechanistic Levels. Foundations of Science:1-16.
    This paper discusses the role of levels and level-bound theoretical terms in neurobiological explanations under the presupposition of a regularity theory of constitution. After presenting the definitions for the constitution relation and the notion of a mechanistic level in the sense of the regularity theory, the paper develops a set of inference rules that allow to determine whether two mechanisms referred to by one or more accepted explanations belong to the same level, or to different levels. The rules are characterized (...)
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  23. S. Jukola (forthcoming). The Commercialization of Research and the Quest for the Objectivity of Science. Foundations of Science:1-15.
    In this paper, I discuss the objectivity of science in the context of commercialized research. Objectivity has traditionally been associated with the behavior of individual scientists and their willingness and ability to base their reasoning on data and logic. By introducing some examples of problematic practices in current research, I show that this view is insufficient. A view that I call the Social View on objectivity succeeds better in accommodating the way in which commercialization affects research.
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  24. Vladimir Kanovei, Karin U. Katz, Mikhail G. Katz & Mary Schaps (forthcoming). Proofs and Retributions, Or: Why Sarah Can't Take Limits. Foundations of Science:1-25.
    The small, the tiny, and the infinitesimal (to quote Paramedic) have been the object of both fascination and vilification for millenia. One of the most vitriolic reviews in mathematics was that written by Errett Bishop about Keisler’s book Elementary Calculus: an Infinitesimal Approach. In this skit we investigate both the argument itself, and some of its roots in Bishop George Berkeley’s criticism of Leibnizian and Newtonian Calculus. We also explore some of the consequences to students for whom the infinitesimal approach (...)
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  25. András Kertész (forthcoming). The Puzzle of Thought Experiments in Conceptual Metaphor Research. Foundations of Science:1-28.
    How can thought experiments lead to new empirical knowledge if they do not make use of empirical information? This puzzle has been widely discussed in the philosophy of science. It arises in conceptual metaphor research as well and is especially important for the clarification of its empirical foundations. The aim of the paper is to suggest a possible solution to the puzzle of thought experiments in conceptual metaphor research. The solution rests on the application of a novel metatheoretical framework that (...)
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  26. Wojciech Krysztofiak (forthcoming). Hyper-Slingshot. Is Fact-Arithmetic Possible? Foundations of Science:1-18.
    The paper presents a new argument supporting the ontological standpoint according to which there are no mathematical facts in any set theoretic model (world) of arithmetical theories. It may be interpreted as showing that it is impossible to construct fact-arithmetic. The importance of this conclusion arises in the context of cognitive science. In the paper, a new type of slingshot argument is presented, which is called hyper-slingshot. The difference between meta-theoretical hyper-slingshots and conventional slingshots consists in the fact that the (...)
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  27. Wu Kun & Joseph E. Brenner (forthcoming). An Informational Ontology and Epistemology of Cognition. Foundations of Science:1-31.
    Despite recent major advances in the neuroscience underlying cognition, the processes of its emergence and evolution are far from being understood. In our view, current interrelated concepts of mind; knowledge; epistemology; perception; cognition and information fail to reflect the real dynamics of mental processes, their ontology and their logic. It has become routine to talk about information in relation to these processes, but there is no consensus about its most relevant qualitative and functional properties. We present a theory of human (...)
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  28. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). Creationists Should Not Accept Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Science.
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  29. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). Union of Euclid's Axiomatic Method with Newton's Empirical Scientific Method Leads to an Improved Electrodynamic Force. Foundations of Science.
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  30. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). The Symmetry and Beauty of the Universe. Foundations of Science.
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  31. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei—Part 4. Foundations of Science.
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  32. Charles William Bill Lucas Jr & Joseph J. Smulsky (forthcoming). New Solar System Force, Decay of Gravity, and Expansion of the Solar System. Foundations of Science.
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  33. Giovanni Macchia (forthcoming). Philosophy of Space and Expanding Universe in G. J. Whitrow. Foundations of Science:1-15.
    One of the few authors to have explicitly connected the physical issue of the expansion of the universe with the philosophical topic of the metaphysical status of space is Gerald James Whitrow. This paper examines his view and tries to highlight its strong and weak points, thereby clarifying its obscure aspects. In general, this really interesting philosophical approach to one of the most important phenomena concerning our universe, and therefore modern cosmology, has been very rarely tackled. This unicity increases the (...)
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  34. Alan Montgomery (forthcoming). The God Particle. Foundations of Science.
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  35. J. Nescolarde-Selva, J. L. Usó-Doménech & M. J. Sabán (forthcoming). Linguistic Knowledge of Reality: A Metaphysical Impossibility? Foundations of Science:1-32.
    Reality contains information (significant) that becomes significances in the mind of the observer. Language is the human instrument to understand reality. But is it possible to attain this reality? Is there an absolute reality, as certain philosophical schools tell us? The reality that we perceive, is it just a fragmented reality of which we are part? The work that the authors present is an attempt to address this question from an epistemological, linguistic and logical-mathematical point of view.
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  36. Henri Poincaré (forthcoming). Space and Geometry. Foundations of Science.
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  37. Emilio Santos (forthcoming). Towards a Realistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Providing a Model of the Physical World. Foundations of Science:1-30.
    It is argued that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is possible and useful. Current interpretations, from “Copenhagen” to “many worlds” are critically revisited. The difficulties for intuitive models of quantum physics are pointed out and possible solutions proposed. In particular the existence of discrete states, the quantum jumps, the alleged lack of objective properties, measurement theory, the probabilistic character of quantum physics, the wave–particle duality and the Bell inequalities are analyzed. The sketch of a realistic picture of the quantum (...)
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  38. Peter N. Stearns (forthcoming). World History, Identity and Political Change. Foundations of Science:1-11.
    This article focuses on the rise of world history and the challenges it poses to curricula that emphasize history in service to national or civilizational identity. The nature and causes of the world history movement are juxtaposed to the continuing or renewed attachment to more nationalist history. Specific clashes around world history, particularly but not exclusively in the United States, have focused on opposing views about history and identity. Compromises continue to results, as well as clear delays in world history (...)
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  39. Jacob Stegenga (forthcoming). Three Criteria for Consensus Conferences. Foundations of Science:1-15.
    Consensus conferences are social techniques which involve bringing together a group of scientific experts, and sometimes also non-experts, in order to increase the public role in science and related policy, to amalgamate diverse and often contradictory evidence for a hypothesis of interest, and to achieve scientific consensus or at least the appearance of consensus among scientists. For consensus conferences that set out to amalgamate evidence, I propose three desiderata: Inclusivity (the consideration of all available evidence), Constraint (the achievement of some (...)
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  40. Greg Volk (forthcoming). 39 Questionable Assumptions in Modern Physics. Foundations of Science.
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  41. Steven E. Wallis (forthcoming). Structures of Logic in Policy and Theory: Identifying Sub-Systemic Bricks for Investigating, Building, and Understanding Conceptual Systems. Foundations of Science:1-19.
    A rapidly growing body of scholarship shows that we can gain new insights into theories and policies by understanding and increasing their systemic structure. This paper will present an overview of this expanding field and discuss how concepts of structure are being applied in a variety of contexts to support collaboration, decision making, learning, prediction, and results. Next, it will delve into the underlying structures of logic that may be found within those theories and policies. Here, we will go beyond (...)
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  42. David R. Weinbaum (forthcoming). Complexity and the Philosophy of Becoming. Foundations of Science:1-40.
    This paper introduces Deleuze’s philosophy of becoming in a system theoretic framework and proposes an alternative ontological foundation to the study of systems and complex systems in particular. A brief critique of systems theory and the difficulties apparent in it is proposed as an introduction to the discussion. Following is an overview aimed at providing access to the ‘big picture’ of Deleuze’s revolutionary philosophical system with emphasis on a system theoretic approach and terminology. The major concepts of Deleuze’s ontology—difference, virtuality, (...)
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  43. Kun Wu & Joseph E. Brenner (forthcoming). Erratum To: An Informational Ontology and Epistemology of Cognition. Foundations of Science:1-1.
    Erratum to: Found Sci DOI 10.1007/s10699-014-9364-0The author, Kun Wu’s name, affiliation and biography have been incorrectly published in the original article. The correct affiliation and biography are provided below.
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