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Forthcoming articles
  1. Boaz Miller (forthcoming). Scientific Consensus and Expert Testimony in Courts Lessons From the Bendectin Litigation. Foundations of Science.
    A consensus in a scientific community is often used as a resource for making informed ‎public-policy decisions and deciding between rival expert testimonies in legal trials. This ‎paper contains a social-epistemic analysis of the high-profile Bendectin drug controversy, ‎which was decided in the courtroom inter alia by deference to an emerging scientific ‎consensus about the safety of Bendectin. Drawing on Miller’s theory of knowledge based ‎consensus, I argue that the consensus in this case was not knowledge based, hence courts’ ‎deference (...)
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  2. Áurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, María Aurora Martínez, Juan Pazos, Santiago Rodríguez & José Gabriel Zato (forthcoming). Serendipity and the Discovery of DNA. Foundations of Science:1-15.
    This paper presents the manner in which the DNA, the molecule of life, was discovered. Unlike what many people, even biologists, believe, it was Johannes Friedrich Miescher who originally discovered and isolated nuclein, currently known as DNA, in 1869, 75 years before Watson and Crick unveiled its structure. Also, in this paper we show, and above all demonstrate, the serendipity of this major discovery. Like many of his contemporaries, Miescher set out to discover how cells worked by means of studying (...)
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  3. Antonio Joaquín Franco-Mariscal (forthcoming). How Can We Teach the Chemical Elements to Make the Memorization Task More Enjoyable? Foundations of Science:1-4.
    In this commentary to Leal (2013), we argue that the memorization of the names and symbols of the chemical elements is necessary in the study of that topic because this task is the key for the later understanding of the Periodic Table. We can make the memorization task in an enjoyable, but effective way, using some educational games in chemistry class. Some recent puzzles, card games, mnemonics rules or games based on drawings to learn the chemical elements are addressed in (...)
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  4. Woosuk Park (forthcoming). Misrepresentation in Context. Foundations of Science:1-12.
    We can witness the recent surge of interest in the interaction between cognitive science, philosophy of science, and aesthetics on the problem of representation. This naturally leads us to rethinking the achievements of Goodman’s monumental book Languages of Art. For, there is no doubt that no one else contributed more than Goodman to throw a light on the cognitive function of art. Ironically, it could be also Goodman who has been the stumbling block for a unified theory of representation. In (...)
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  5. Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi (forthcoming). God May Not Play Dice, But Human Observers Surely Do. Foundations of Science:1-29.
    We investigate indeterminism in physical observations. For this, we introduce a distinction between genuinely indeterministic (creation-1 and discovery-1) observational processes, and fully deterministic (creation-2 and discovery-2) observational processes, which we analyze by drawing a parallel between the localization properties of microscopic entities, like electrons, and the lateralization properties of macroscopic entities, like simple elastic bands. We show that by removing the randomness incorporated in certain of our observational processes, acquiring over them a better control, we also alter these processes in (...)
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  6. Steven E. Wallis (forthcoming). Abstraction and Insight: Building Better Conceptual Systems to Support More Effective Social Change. Foundations of Science:1-10.
    When creating theory to understand or implement change at the social and/or organizational level, it is generally accepted that part of the theory building process includes a process of abstraction. While the process of abstraction is well understood, it is not so well understood how abstractions “fit” together to enable the creation of better theory. Starting with a few simple ideas, this paper explores one way we work with abstractions. This exploration challenges the traditionally held importance of abstracting concepts from (...)
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  7. Fred Adams (forthcoming). What is a Cognitive Process? Foundations of Science:1-3.
    In this commentary to Serrano et al. (2013), I applaud this foundation article for being a breath of fresh air because it addresses the question “What is cognition?” Too often in the cognitive sciences, we leave that question unanswered or worse, unasked. I come not to criticize but to offer a helpful suggestion aimed a pulling together some of the separate strands weaved throughout this article.
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  8. D. Aerts, J. Broekaert & L. Gabora (forthcoming). The Quantum Nature of Common Processes. Foundations of Science.
     
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  9. D. Aerts & L. Gabora (forthcoming). Towards a General Theory of Evolution. Foundations of Science.
     
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  10. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Conflict of Atomism and Creation-Science in History. Foundations of Science.
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  11. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Modeling the Real Structure of an Electron. Foundations of Science.
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  12. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Commentary on Sub-Quantum Physics. Foundations of Science.
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  13. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Science of Origins. Foundations of Science.
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  14. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Nuclear Binding and Half-Lives. Foundations of Science.
     
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  15. David L. Bergman & Dennis P. Allen Jr (forthcoming). Electron in the Ground Energy State—Part. Foundations of Science.
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  16. Fernando Charro & Juan J. Colomina (forthcoming). Points of View Beyond Models: Towards a Formal Approach to Points of View as Access to the World. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science:1-15.
    According to Vázquez and Liz (Found Sci 16(4): 383–391, 2011), Points of View (PoV) can be considered in two different ways. On the one hand, they can be explained following the model of propositional attitudes. This model assumes that the internal structure of a PoV is constituted by a subject, a set of contents, and a set of relations between the subject and those contents. On the other hand, we can analyze points of view taking as a model the notions (...)
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  17. Taner Edis & Maarten Boudry (forthcoming). Beyond Physics? On the Prospects of Finding a Meaningful Oracle. Foundations of Science:1-20.
    Certain enterprises at the fringes of science, such as intelligent design creationism, claim to identify phenomena that go beyond not just our present physics but any possible physical explanation. Asking what it would take for such a claim to succeed, we introduce a version of physicalism that formulates the proposition that all available data sets are best explained by combinations of “chance and necessity”—algorithmic rules and randomness. Physicalism would then be violated by the existence of oracles that produce certain kinds (...)
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  18. Claudio Garola & Marco Persano (forthcoming). Embedding Quantum Mechanics Into a Broader Noncontextual Theory. Foundations of Science:1-23.
    Scholars concerned with the foundations of quantum mechanics (QM) usually think that contextuality (hence nonobjectivity of physical properties, which implies numerous problems and paradoxes) is an unavoidable feature of QM which directly follows from the mathematical apparatus of QM. Based on some previous papers on this issue, we criticize this view and supply a new informal presentation of the extended semantic realism (ESR) model which embodies the formalism of QM into a broader mathematical formalism and reinterprets quantum probabilities as conditional (...)
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  19. Hugh Gash (forthcoming). Fixed or Probable Ideas? Foundations of Science:1-2.
    This commentary on Nescolarde-Selva and Usó-Doménech (Found Sci, 2013) raises questions about the dynamic versus static nature of the model proposed, and in addition asks whether the model might be used to explain ethical flexibility and rigidity.
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  20. Hugh Gash (forthcoming). Constructivism, Truth and Reality. Foundations of Science:1-3.
    This commentary to Nescolarde-Selva and Usó-Doménech’s (Reality, systems and impure systems. Foundations of Science 2013) links ideas in their paper to radical constructivism and raises two questions. (1) Would it be helpful to substitute the constructivist notion of viability for the traditional notion of truth with its connotations of relating language and reality? (2) Is the link made to issues in ontological philosophy important since the implicit constructivist epistemology of the paper considers mathematical ideas are just as real as ideas (...)
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  21. Thomas Görnitz (forthcoming). The Basis for an Understanding of Matter and Mind. Foundations of Science:1-6.
    In this commentary to Khatam and Shafiee (2013), we outline the results which are obtained three decades after Weizsäcker’s “Aufbau der Physik” (1985). It is essential to go beyond the “urs” to a yet more abstract conception. With the protyposis, abstract quantum bits without any special meaning, the understanding of matter becomes new basis. As a result, also a scientific understanding of mind will be obtained.
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  22. Wojciech Krysztofiak (forthcoming). Hyper-Slingshot. Is Fact-Arithmetic Possible? Foundations of Science:1-18.
    The paper presents a new argument supporting the ontological standpoint according to which there are no mathematical facts in any set theoretic model (world) of arithmetical theories. It may be interpreted as showing that it is impossible to construct fact-arithmetic. The importance of this conclusion arises in the context of cognitive science. In the paper, a new type of slingshot argument is presented, which is called hyper-slingshot. The difference between meta-theoretical hyper-slingshots and conventional slingshots consists in the fact that the (...)
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  23. João P. Leal (forthcoming). The Forgotten Names of Chemical Elements. Foundations of Science:1-9.
    Chemical elements are the bricks with which Chemistry is build. Their names had a history, but part of it is forgotten or barely known. In this article the forgotten, no more used, never used, and alternatively used names and symbols of the elements are reviewed, bringing to us some surprises and deeper knowledge about the richness of Chemistry. It should be stressed that chemical elements are important not only for chemists but for all people dealing with science. As in any (...)
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  24. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). Creationists Should Not Accept Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Science.
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  25. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). Union of Euclid's Axiomatic Method with Newton's Empirical Scientific Method Leads to an Improved Electrodynamic Force. Foundations of Science.
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  26. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). The Symmetry and Beauty of the Universe. Foundations of Science.
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  27. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei—Part 4. Foundations of Science.
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  28. Charles William Bill Lucas Jr & Joseph J. Smulsky (forthcoming). New Solar System Force, Decay of Gravity, and Expansion of the Solar System. Foundations of Science.
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  29. B. A. Mamedov & M. Y. Esmer (forthcoming). On the Philosophical Nature of Einstein's Mass-Energy Equivalence Formula E=Mc^{2}. Foundations of Science:1-11.
    The historical development of the famous Einstein formula $E=mc^{2}$ is briefly discussed. In this paper, on the basis of the Einstein viewpoint a new general approach is proposed for demonstrating the correctness of the formula $E=mc^{2}$ . It is can be seen that the generalized approach leads to Einstein’s famous formula, too. During recent years, various papers have been published concerning the incompleteness of this famous formula. It is demonstrated that the presented claims in these articles are not mathematically legitimate. (...)
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  30. Alan Montgomery (forthcoming). The God Particle. Foundations of Science.
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  31. J. Nescolarde-Selva & J. L. Usó-Doménech (forthcoming). Model, Metamodel and Topology. Foundations of Science:1-4.
    This reply to Gash’s (Found Sci 2013) commentary on Nescolarde-Selva and Usó-Doménech (Found Sci 2013) answers the three questions raised and at the same time opens up new questions.
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  32. J. Nescolarde-Selva, J. L. Usó-Doménech & M. J. Sabán (forthcoming). Linguistic Knowledge of Reality: A Metaphysical Impossibility? Foundations of Science:1-32.
    Reality contains information (significant) that becomes significances in the mind of the observer. Language is the human instrument to understand reality. But is it possible to attain this reality? Is there an absolute reality, as certain philosophical schools tell us? The reality that we perceive, is it just a fragmented reality of which we are part? The work that the authors present is an attempt to address this question from an epistemological, linguistic and logical-mathematical point of view.
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  33. Josué Antonio Nescolarde-Selva & Josep-Lluis Usó-Doménech (forthcoming). Semiotic Vision of Ideologies. Foundations of Science:1-20.
    A semiotic theory of systems derived from language would have the purpose of classifying all the systems of linguistic expression: philosophy, ideology, myth, poetry, art, as much as the dream, lapsus, and free association in a pluridimensional matrix that will interact with many diversified fields. In each one of these discourses it is necessary to consider a plurality of questions, the essence of which will only be comprehensible by the totality; it will be necessary to ask, in the first place, (...)
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  34. Ilkka Niiniluoto (forthcoming). Representation and Truthlikeness. Foundations of Science:1-5.
    Woosuk Park’s paper “Misrepresentation in Context” is a useful plea for a theory of representation with promising interaction between cognitive science, philosophy of science, and aesthetics. In this paper, I argue that such a unified account is provided by Charles S. Peirce’s semiotics. This theory puts Park’s criticism of Nelson Goodman and Jerry Fodor in context. Some of Park’s pertinent remarks on the problem of misrepresentation can be illuminated by the account of truthlikeness and idealization developed by philosophers of science.
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  35. Jun-Young Oh (forthcoming). Understanding Natural Science Based on Abductive Inference: Continental Drift. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science:1-22.
    This study aims to understand scientific inference for the evolutionary procedure of Continental Drift based on abductive inference, which is important for creative inference and scientific discovery during problem solving. We present the following two research problems: (1) we suggest a scientific inference procedure as well as various strategies and a criterion for choosing hypotheses over other competing or previous hypotheses; aspects of this procedure include puzzling observation, abduction, retroduction, updating, deduction, induction, and recycle; and (2) we analyze the “theory (...)
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  36. Henri Poincaré (forthcoming). Space and Geometry. Foundations of Science.
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  37. Gustavo E. Romero (forthcoming). The Collapse of Supertasks. Foundations of Science:1-8.
    A supertask consists in the performance of an infinite number of actions in a finite time. I show that any attempt to carry out a supertask will produce a divergence of the curvature of spacetime, resulting in the formation of a black hole. I maintain that supertaks, contrarily to a popular view among philosophers, are physically impossible. Supertasks, literally, collapse under their own weight.
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  38. J. Ignacio Serrano, M. Dolores del Castillo & Manuel Carretero (forthcoming). Cognitive? Science? Foundations of Science:1-17.
    Cognitive Science is a promising field of research that deals with one of the most fundamental questions ever: how do beings know? However, despite the long and extensive tradition of the field it has not yet become an area of knowledge with scientific identity. This is primarily due to three reasons: the lack of boundaries in defining the object of study, i.e. cognition, the lack of a precise, robust and consistent scientific methodology and results, and the inner problems derived from (...)
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  39. J. Ignacio Serrano, M. Dolores del Castillo & Manuel Carretero (forthcoming). Cognitive? Science? Foundations of Science.
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  40. Greg Volk (forthcoming). 39 Questionable Assumptions in Modern Physics. Foundations of Science.
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  41. Friedel Weinert (forthcoming). Lines of Descent: Kuhn and Beyond. Foundations of Science:1-22.
    Thomas S. Kuhn is famous both for his work on the Copernican Revolution and his ‘paradigm’ view of scientific revolutions. But Kuhn later abandoned the notion of paradigm (and related notions) in favour of a more ‘evolutionary’ view of the history of science. Kuhn’s position therefore moved closer to ‘continuity’ models of scientific progress, for instance ‘chain-of-reasoning’ models, originally championed by D. Shapere. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate around Kuhn’s new ‘developmental’ view and to (...)
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  42. Mohammadreza Zolfagharian, Reza Akbari & Hamidreza Fartookzadeh (forthcoming). Theory of Knowledge in System Dynamics Models. Foundations of Science:1-19.
    Having entered into the problem structuring methods, system dynamics (SD) is an approach, among systems’ methodologies, which claims to recognize the main structures of socio-economic behaviors. However, the concern for building or discovering strong philosophical underpinnings of SD, undoubtedly playing an important role in the modeling process, is a long-standing issue, in a way that there is a considerable debate about the assumptions or the philosophical foundations of it. In this paper, with a new perspective, we have explored theory of (...)
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