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Forthcoming articles
  1. Carlo Cellucci (forthcoming). Mathematical Beauty, Understanding, and Discovery. Foundations of Science:1-17.
    In a very influential paper Rota stresses the relevance of mathematical beauty to mathematical research, and claims that a piece of mathematics is beautiful when it is enlightening. He stops short, however, of explaining what he means by ‘enlightening’. This paper proposes an alternative approach, according to which a mathematical demonstration or theorem is beautiful when it provides understanding. Mathematical beauty thus considered can have a role in mathematical discovery because it can guide the mathematician in selecting which hypothesis to (...)
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  2. Boaz Miller (forthcoming). Scientific Consensus and Expert Testimony in Courts Lessons From the Bendectin Litigation. Foundations of Science.
    A consensus in a scientific community is often used as a resource for making informed ‎public-policy decisions and deciding between rival expert testimonies in legal trials. This ‎paper contains a social-epistemic analysis of the high-profile Bendectin drug controversy, ‎which was decided in the courtroom inter alia by deference to an emerging scientific ‎consensus about the safety of Bendectin. Drawing on Miller’s theory of knowledge based ‎consensus, I argue that the consensus in this case was not knowledge based, hence courts’ ‎deference (...)
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  3. Gustavo E. Romero (forthcoming). Present Time. Foundations of Science:1-11.
    The idea of a moving present or ‘now’ seems to form part of our most basic beliefs about reality. Such a present, however, is not reflected in any of our theories of the physical world. I show in this article that presentism, the doctrine that only what is present exists, is in conflict with modern relativistic cosmology and recent advances in neurosciences. I argue for a tenseless view of time, where what we call ‘the present’ is just an emergent secondary (...)
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  4. Áurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, María Aurora Martínez, Juan Pazos, Santiago Rodríguez & José Gabriel Zato (forthcoming). Serendipity and the Discovery of DNA. Foundations of Science:1-15.
    This paper presents the manner in which the DNA, the molecule of life, was discovered. Unlike what many people, even biologists, believe, it was Johannes Friedrich Miescher who originally discovered and isolated nuclein, currently known as DNA, in 1869, 75 years before Watson and Crick unveiled its structure. Also, in this paper we show, and above all demonstrate, the serendipity of this major discovery. Like many of his contemporaries, Miescher set out to discover how cells worked by means of studying (...)
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  5. Anton Froeyman, Laszlo Kosolosky & Jeroen Van Bouwel (forthcoming). Introduction: Social Epistemology Meets the Philosophy of the Humanities. Foundations of Science:1-13.
    From time to time, when I explain to a new acquaintance that I’m a philosopher of science, my interlocutor will nod agreeably and remark that that surely means I’m interested in the ethical status of various kinds of scientific research, the impact that science has had on our values, or the role that the sciences play in contemporary democracies. Although this common response hardly corresponds to what professional philosophers of science have done for the past decades, or even centuries, it (...)
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  6. L. King, B. Morgan-Olsen & J. Wong (forthcoming). Identifying Difference, Engaging Dissent: What is at Stake in Democratizing Knowledge? Foundations of Science:1-20.
    Several prominent voices have called for a democratization of science through deliberative processes that include a diverse range of perspectives and values. We bring these scholars into conversation with extant research on democratic deliberation in political theory and the social sciences. In doing so, we identify systematic barriers to the effectiveness of inclusive deliberation in both scientific and political settings. We are particularly interested in what we call misidentified dissent, where deliberations are starkly framed at the outset in terms of (...)
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  7. Woosuk Park (forthcoming). Misrepresentation in Context. Foundations of Science:1-12.
    We can witness the recent surge of interest in the interaction between cognitive science, philosophy of science, and aesthetics on the problem of representation. This naturally leads us to rethinking the achievements of Goodman’s monumental book Languages of Art. For, there is no doubt that no one else contributed more than Goodman to throw a light on the cognitive function of art. Ironically, it could be also Goodman who has been the stumbling block for a unified theory of representation. In (...)
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  8. Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi (forthcoming). God May Not Play Dice, But Human Observers Surely Do. Foundations of Science:1-29.
    We investigate indeterminism in physical observations. For this, we introduce a distinction between genuinely indeterministic (creation-1 and discovery-1) observational processes, and fully deterministic (creation-2 and discovery-2) observational processes, which we analyze by drawing a parallel between the localization properties of microscopic entities, like electrons, and the lateralization properties of macroscopic entities, like simple elastic bands. We show that by removing the randomness incorporated in certain of our observational processes, acquiring over them a better control, we also alter these processes in (...)
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  9. Steven E. Wallis (forthcoming). Abstraction and Insight: Building Better Conceptual Systems to Support More Effective Social Change. Foundations of Science:1-10.
    When creating theory to understand or implement change at the social and/or organizational level, it is generally accepted that part of the theory building process includes a process of abstraction. While the process of abstraction is well understood, it is not so well understood how abstractions “fit” together to enable the creation of better theory. Starting with a few simple ideas, this paper explores one way we work with abstractions. This exploration challenges the traditionally held importance of abstracting concepts from (...)
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  10. D. Aerts, J. Broekaert & L. Gabora (forthcoming). The Quantum Nature of Common Processes. Foundations of Science.
     
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  11. D. Aerts & L. Gabora (forthcoming). Towards a General Theory of Evolution. Foundations of Science.
     
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  12. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay, John G. Bennett & Megan D. Higgs (forthcoming). How to Undermine Underdetermination? Foundations of Science:1-21.
    The underdetermination thesis poses a threat to rational choice of scientific theories. We discuss two arguments for the thesis. One draws its strength from deductivism together with the existence thesis, and the other is defended on the basis of the failure of a reliable inductive method. We adopt a partially subjective/objective pragmatic Bayesian epistemology of science framework, and reject both arguments for the thesis. Thus, in science we are able to reinstate rational choice called into question by the underdetermination thesis.
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  13. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Conflict of Atomism and Creation-Science in History. Foundations of Science.
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  14. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Modeling the Real Structure of an Electron. Foundations of Science.
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  15. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Commentary on Sub-Quantum Physics. Foundations of Science.
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  16. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Science of Origins. Foundations of Science.
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  17. David L. Bergman (forthcoming). Nuclear Binding and Half-Lives. Foundations of Science.
     
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  18. David L. Bergman & Dennis P. Allen Jr (forthcoming). Electron in the Ground Energy State—Part. Foundations of Science.
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  19. Mario Bunge (forthcoming). Does the Aharonov–Bohm Effect Occur? Foundations of Science:1-5.
    Aharonov and Bohm (Phys Rev 115:485–491, 1959) showed that, far from being merely a mathematical tool, the vector potential \(A\) can have a microphysical effect even when irrotational, in which case the magnetic field is null. Still, at first sight there is something weird about this situation. Do we have to admit a new force? I argue that there is no paradox in the potentials-formulation of electrodynamics, for it shows that, while “ \(\nabla \times A = 0\) ” represents a (...)
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  20. Taner Edis & Maarten Boudry (forthcoming). Beyond Physics? On the Prospects of Finding a Meaningful Oracle. Foundations of Science:1-20.
    Certain enterprises at the fringes of science, such as intelligent design creationism, claim to identify phenomena that go beyond not just our present physics but any possible physical explanation. Asking what it would take for such a claim to succeed, we introduce a version of physicalism that formulates the proposition that all available data sets are best explained by combinations of “chance and necessity”—algorithmic rules and randomness. Physicalism would then be violated by the existence of oracles that produce certain kinds (...)
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  21. Börje Ekstig (forthcoming). Complexity, Natural Selection and the Evolution of Life and Humans. Foundations of Science:1-13.
    In this paper, I discuss the concept of complexity. I show that the principle of natural selection as acting on complexity gives a solution to the problem of reconciling the seemingly contradictory notion of generally increasing complexity and the observation that most species don’t follow such a trend. I suggest the process of evolution to be illustrated by means of a schematic diagram of complexity versus time, interpreted as a form of the Tree of Life. The suggested model implies that (...)
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  22. Miguel Ferrero & J. L. Sánchez-Gómez (forthcoming). Coming From Material Reality. Foundations of Science:1-14.
    In a previous essay we demonstrated that quantum mechanical formalism is incompatible with some necessary principles of the mechanism conception still dominant in the physicist’s community. In this paper we show, based on recent empirical evidence in quantum physics, the inevitability of abandoning the old mechanism conception and to construct a new one in which physical reality is seen as a representation which refers to relations established through operations made by us in a world that we are determining. This change (...)
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  23. Jens Harbecke (forthcoming). Regularity Constitution and the Location of Mechanistic Levels. Foundations of Science:1-16.
    This paper discusses the role of levels and level-bound theoretical terms in neurobiological explanations under the presupposition of a regularity theory of constitution. After presenting the definitions for the constitution relation and the notion of a mechanistic level in the sense of the regularity theory, the paper develops a set of inference rules that allow to determine whether two mechanisms referred to by one or more accepted explanations belong to the same level, or to different levels. The rules are characterized (...)
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  24. Vladimir Kanovei, Karin U. Katz, Mikhail G. Katz & Mary Schaps (forthcoming). Proofs and Retributions, Or: Why Sarah Can't Take Limits. Foundations of Science:1-25.
    The small, the tiny, and the infinitesimal (to quote Paramedic) have been the object of both fascination and vilification for millenia. One of the most vitriolic reviews in mathematics was that written by Errett Bishop about Keisler’s book Elementary Calculus: an Infinitesimal Approach. In this skit we investigate both the argument itself, and some of its roots in Bishop George Berkeley’s criticism of Leibnizian and Newtonian Calculus. We also explore some of the consequences to students for whom the infinitesimal approach (...)
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  25. András Kertész (forthcoming). The Puzzle of Thought Experiments in Conceptual Metaphor Research. Foundations of Science:1-28.
    How can thought experiments lead to new empirical knowledge if they do not make use of empirical information? This puzzle has been widely discussed in the philosophy of science. It arises in conceptual metaphor research as well and is especially important for the clarification of its empirical foundations. The aim of the paper is to suggest a possible solution to the puzzle of thought experiments in conceptual metaphor research. The solution rests on the application of a novel metatheoretical framework that (...)
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  26. Wojciech Krysztofiak (forthcoming). Hyper-Slingshot. Is Fact-Arithmetic Possible? Foundations of Science:1-18.
    The paper presents a new argument supporting the ontological standpoint according to which there are no mathematical facts in any set theoretic model (world) of arithmetical theories. It may be interpreted as showing that it is impossible to construct fact-arithmetic. The importance of this conclusion arises in the context of cognitive science. In the paper, a new type of slingshot argument is presented, which is called hyper-slingshot. The difference between meta-theoretical hyper-slingshots and conventional slingshots consists in the fact that the (...)
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  27. Wu Kun & Joseph E. Brenner (forthcoming). An Informational Ontology and Epistemology of Cognition. Foundations of Science:1-31.
    Despite recent major advances in the neuroscience underlying cognition, the processes of its emergence and evolution are far from being understood. In our view, current interrelated concepts of mind; knowledge; epistemology; perception; cognition and information fail to reflect the real dynamics of mental processes, their ontology and their logic. It has become routine to talk about information in relation to these processes, but there is no consensus about its most relevant qualitative and functional properties. We present a theory of human (...)
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  28. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). Creationists Should Not Accept Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Science.
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  29. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). Union of Euclid's Axiomatic Method with Newton's Empirical Scientific Method Leads to an Improved Electrodynamic Force. Foundations of Science.
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  30. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). The Symmetry and Beauty of the Universe. Foundations of Science.
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  31. Charles W. Lucas Jr (forthcoming). A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei—Part 4. Foundations of Science.
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  32. Charles William Bill Lucas Jr & Joseph J. Smulsky (forthcoming). New Solar System Force, Decay of Gravity, and Expansion of the Solar System. Foundations of Science.
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  33. Giovanni Macchia (forthcoming). Philosophy of Space and Expanding Universe in G. J. Whitrow. Foundations of Science:1-15.
    One of the few authors to have explicitly connected the physical issue of the expansion of the universe with the philosophical topic of the metaphysical status of space is Gerald James Whitrow. This paper examines his view and tries to highlight its strong and weak points, thereby clarifying its obscure aspects. In general, this really interesting philosophical approach to one of the most important phenomena concerning our universe, and therefore modern cosmology, has been very rarely tackled. This unicity increases the (...)
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  34. B. A. Mamedov & M. Y. Esmer (forthcoming). On the Philosophical Nature of Einstein's Mass-Energy Equivalence Formula E=Mc^{2}. Foundations of Science:1-11.
    The historical development of the famous Einstein formula $E=mc^{2}$ is briefly discussed. In this paper, on the basis of the Einstein viewpoint a new general approach is proposed for demonstrating the correctness of the formula $E=mc^{2}$ . It is can be seen that the generalized approach leads to Einstein’s famous formula, too. During recent years, various papers have been published concerning the incompleteness of this famous formula. It is demonstrated that the presented claims in these articles are not mathematically legitimate. (...)
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  35. Alan Montgomery (forthcoming). The God Particle. Foundations of Science.
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  36. J. Nescolarde-Selva, J. L. Usó-Doménech & M. J. Sabán (forthcoming). Linguistic Knowledge of Reality: A Metaphysical Impossibility? Foundations of Science:1-32.
    Reality contains information (significant) that becomes significances in the mind of the observer. Language is the human instrument to understand reality. But is it possible to attain this reality? Is there an absolute reality, as certain philosophical schools tell us? The reality that we perceive, is it just a fragmented reality of which we are part? The work that the authors present is an attempt to address this question from an epistemological, linguistic and logical-mathematical point of view.
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  37. Ilkka Niiniluoto (forthcoming). Representation and Truthlikeness. Foundations of Science:1-5.
    Woosuk Park’s paper “Misrepresentation in Context” is a useful plea for a theory of representation with promising interaction between cognitive science, philosophy of science, and aesthetics. In this paper, I argue that such a unified account is provided by Charles S. Peirce’s semiotics. This theory puts Park’s criticism of Nelson Goodman and Jerry Fodor in context. Some of Park’s pertinent remarks on the problem of misrepresentation can be illuminated by the account of truthlikeness and idealization developed by philosophers of science.
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  38. Henri Poincaré (forthcoming). Space and Geometry. Foundations of Science.
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  39. Emilio Santos (forthcoming). Towards a Realistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Providing a Model of the Physical World. Foundations of Science:1-30.
    It is argued that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is possible and useful. Current interpretations, from “Copenhagen” to “many worlds” are critically revisited. The difficulties for intuitive models of quantum physics are pointed out and possible solutions proposed. In particular the existence of discrete states, the quantum jumps, the alleged lack of objective properties, measurement theory, the probabilistic character of quantum physics, the wave–particle duality and the Bell inequalities are analyzed. The sketch of a realistic picture of the quantum (...)
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  40. Greg Volk (forthcoming). 39 Questionable Assumptions in Modern Physics. Foundations of Science.
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  41. Steven E. Wallis (forthcoming). Structures of Logic in Policy and Theory: Identifying Sub-Systemic Bricks for Investigating, Building, and Understanding Conceptual Systems. Foundations of Science:1-19.
    A rapidly growing body of scholarship shows that we can gain new insights into theories and policies by understanding and increasing their systemic structure. This paper will present an overview of this expanding field and discuss how concepts of structure are being applied in a variety of contexts to support collaboration, decision making, learning, prediction, and results. Next, it will delve into the underlying structures of logic that may be found within those theories and policies. Here, we will go beyond (...)
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  42. David R. Weinbaum (forthcoming). Complexity and the Philosophy of Becoming. Foundations of Science:1-40.
    This paper introduces Deleuze’s philosophy of becoming in a system theoretic framework and proposes an alternative ontological foundation to the study of systems and complex systems in particular. A brief critique of systems theory and the difficulties apparent in it is proposed as an introduction to the discussion. Following is an overview aimed at providing access to the ‘big picture’ of Deleuze’s revolutionary philosophical system with emphasis on a system theoretic approach and terminology. The major concepts of Deleuze’s ontology—difference, virtuality, (...)
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  43. Friedel Weinert (forthcoming). Lines of Descent: Kuhn and Beyond. Foundations of Science:1-22.
    Thomas S. Kuhn is famous both for his work on the Copernican Revolution and his ‘paradigm’ view of scientific revolutions. But Kuhn later abandoned the notion of paradigm (and related notions) in favour of a more ‘evolutionary’ view of the history of science. Kuhn’s position therefore moved closer to ‘continuity’ models of scientific progress, for instance ‘chain-of-reasoning’ models, originally championed by D. Shapere. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate around Kuhn’s new ‘developmental’ view and to (...)
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