Year:

  1.  42
    Elliott Sober (2001). Instrumentalism Revisited. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001 (91):3 - 39.
    Instrumentalism is usually understood as a semantic thesis: scientific theories are neither true nor false, but are merely instruments for making predictions. Scientific realists are on firm ground when they reject this semantic claim. This paper focuses on epistemological rather than semantic instrumentalism. This form of instrumentalism claims that theories are to be judged by their ability to make accurate predictions, and that predictive accuracy is the only consideration that matters in the end. I consider how instrumentalism is related to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  2.  13
    Evandro Agazzi (2001). Science and the Humanities in the New Paideia. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:223-234.
    The paideia of modernity is now in crisis. What is needed is a deeper, global understanding of the human being, and a broader determination of its ends and needs. Such a picture of the human being, its life, its real problems and expectations, can be called a paideia, in a sense that is the hard core of the different modulations this concept has received during its long history. It is suggested that this new paideia will be of service to humanity (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  11
    Natalia Avtonomova (2001). On the (Re)Creation of Russian Philosophical Language. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:83-94.
    Russian philosophy has always lived on translations. Difficulties in the process of creating a conceptual language used to be overcome gradually, one by one. Now, in the post-Soviet period after all of the locks had been opened, the accelerated development of Russian culture often causes us to assimilate deconstructivism before constructivism and some newer versions of phenomenology before Husserl. It brings about a cultural paradox which cannot be solved by habitual philosophical means. My point here is that Russian philology is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4.  14
    Carl Becker (2001). Philosophy Educating Humanity. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:1-11.
    The twentieth century may be considered the ultimate expression of Western ideals and philosophy: “civilized” man’s attempt to dominate “uncivilized” peoples and nature. The twenty-first century soberingly proclaims the shortsightedness and ultimate unsustainability of this philosophy. This paper shows the limitations of the modern Western worldview, and the practical applicability of ideas to be found in Asian philosophies.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5.  21
    Daniel Bonevac (2001). Defeasibly Sufficient Reason. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:1-10.
    My aim is to show that supervenience claims follow from instances of a principle I call the principle of defeasibly sufficient reason. This principle construes the completeness of physics quite differently from strong or reductive physicalism and encodes both scientific and common sense patterns of explanation and justification. Rather than thoroughly defending the principle in the short space of this paper, I will sketch how one might defend it and a resulting fainthearted physicalism.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6.  13
    Tian Yu Cao (2001). Volume Introduction. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:13-21.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7.  18
    Tian Yu Cao (2001). Representation or Construction? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:115-123.
    In this essay, I argue that the basic entities in the causally organized hierarchy of entities that quantum field theory describes are not particles but fields. Then I move to discuss, from the perspective of a structural realist, in what sense and to what degree this theoretical construction of fields can be taken as an objective representation of physical reality.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8.  18
    Arindam Chakrabarti (2001). Truth, Recognition of Truth, and Thoughtless Realism. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:41-59.
    Witnessing the fate of the various definitions of truth, Donald Davidson has recently called the very drive to define truth a “folly.” Before him, Kant and Frege had given independent arguments why a general definition of truth is impossible. After a quick summary of their arguments, I recount several reasons that Gangeśa gave for not counting truth as a genuine natural universal. I argue that in spite of defining truth as a feature of personal and ephemeral awareness episodes, the Nyāya (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9.  11
    D. P. Chattopadhyaya (2001). Communitarianism From an Eastern Perspective. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:229-234.
    I make a distinction between regional and national movements toward union and uniformity. The former suppresses individuality, both at the level of the human being and at that of their political aggregates, while the latter allows space for criticism and creativity. I briefly rehearse communitarian movements of the past so as to draw historical lessons from their failures. From this, I go on to sketch some features of the kind of regional and even global communitarianism that is required in today’s (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10.  19
    Chung-Ying Cheng (2001). Classical Chinese Philosophy in a Global Context. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:13-23.
    I discuss several areas of classical Chinese philosophy such as Confucianism, Daoism, Yijing philosophy, and the Mingjia, in terms of their global relevance for humankind today. I contend that despite the critique of 4 May 1919 and Great Cultural Revolution of 1965–1976, these philosophical schools have remained latent in the consciousness of the Chinese people. I argue that classical Chinese philosophy is very relevant for the present worldwide rebirth (renaissance) of human civilization. It is, in fact, crucial to the development (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  18
    Chung-Ying Cheng (2001). Philosophy of Violence From an Eastern Perspective. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:181-185.
    In this paper, I discuss Moist, Confucianist, Daoist, and Buddhist views on violence, arguing that this provides a whole spectrum of ways of dealing with violence that should not to be regarded as being mutually exclusive. In fact, I argue that it is actually beneficial to combine these positions for dealing with specific cases of violence, and for preventing violence from ever occurring.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  13
    Manuel Comesaña (2001). ¿Tiene Derecho a Existir la Filosofía de la Ciencia? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:151-157.
    En este trabajo se suscribe la tesis de que la filosofía de la ciencia—al igual que las demás ramas de la filosofía—consiste en discusiones interminables sobre problemas que no se pueden resolver, pero se sostiene también que, a pesar (o a causa) de eso, tiene derecho a existir debido a que cumple funciones importantes, entre ellas precisamente la de dar lugar a discusiones interminables sobre problemas que no se pueden resolver, actividad que a las personas con genuina vocación filosófica les (...)
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  20
    Alberto Cordero (2001). Physics and the Underdetermination Thesis. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:97-113.
    Although exceptionally successful in the laboratory, the standard version of quantum theory is marred as a realist-objectivist proposition because of its internal conceptual difficulties and its tension with important parts of physics—most conspicuously, relativity theory. So, to meet these challenges, in recent years at least three distinct major objectivist programs have been advanced to further quantum theory into a proper general account of material systems. Unfortunately, the resulting proposals turn out to be, for all practical purposes, empirically equivalent both among (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14.  27
    Marcelo Dascal (2001). Controversies and Epistemology. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:159-192.
    I present and defend the thesis that the impasse at which the philosophy and history of science find themselves in the last couple of decades is due, to a large extent, either to the complete neglect or to a misguided treatment of the role of scientific controversies in the evolution of science. In order to do so, I first provide a preliminary clarification of the impasse to which I refer. I go on to explain why I see the study of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  22
    Stephen Dawson (2001). Series Introduction. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:7-10.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  15
    Mikhail Epstein (2001). Main Trends of Contemporary Russian Thought. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:131-146.
    This paper focuses on the most recent period in the development of Russian thought (1960s–1990s). Proceeding from the cyclical patterns of Russian intellectual history, I propose to name it the third philosophical awakening. I define the main tendency of this period as the struggle of thought against ideocracy. I then suggest a classification of main trends in Russian thought of this period: (1) Dialectical Materialism in its evolution from late Stalinism to neo-communist mysticism; (2) Neorationalism and Structuralism; (3) Religious Orthodox (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  10
    Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze (2001). Democracy in Today's Africa. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:187-199.
    There are international and so-called “global” forces framing Africa within a larger world, a world structured predominantly by Europe and North America and their needs for raw materials and markets, power, and leisure. This paper therefore pursues questions like, “What does democracy mean for Africans today?” and, “What does freedom mean when colonial liberation has been achieved?” or, to be more precise, “What is democracy in the world today from an African perspective?”. I distinguish between freedom (as the exercise of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  20
    Eduardo H. Flichman (2001). Newton's Dynamics, Kuhn, and Incommensurability. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:89-96.
    In this paper I will attempt to show how incommensurability between theories is usually manifested, framing this notion in a sense similar to the Kuhnian one in certain aspects, though very different in others. Further, I will show that it is possible, and desirable, to rid Kuhn’s thesis of the idea that in many important theories a certain part of the theoretical nucleus partially contains in a more or less vague sense, synthetic a priori or even analytic statements. Alternatively, I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  15
    Jay L. Garfield (2001). Buddhism and Democracy. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:157-172.
    What is the relation between Buddhism and liberal democracy? Are they compatible frameworks for social value that can somehow be joined to one another to gain a consistent whole? Or, are they antagonistic, forcing those who would be Buddhist democrats into an uncomfortable choice between individually attractive but jointly unsatisfiable values? Another possibility is that they operate at entirely different levels of discourse so that questions regarding their relationship simply do not arise. I suggest that not only are Buddhism and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  18
    Hamlet A. Gevorkian (2001). The Encounter of Cultures and the Philosophy of History. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:147-156.
    A general problem of philosophy concerns the possibility of objective knowledge of other cultures (including past cultures), and the adequacy of their reconstruction. The problem of cultural development is also crucial. In this paper, I argue that a culture which has expanded its potentialities in various independent forms is an open culture capable of entering into dialogue with other cultures.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  15
    David Gruender (2001). On Explanation. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:135-141.
    Given the great historical distance between scientific explanation as Aristotle and Hempel saw it, some important similarities and differences between he two approaches are examined and appraised, especially the inclination to take deduction itself as the very model of scientific knowledge: an inclination we have good reason to reject.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22.  13
    David Grünberg (2001). Bootstrapping and the Problem of Testing Quantitative Theoretical Hypotheses. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:143-150.
    Two alternative solutions to the problem of computing the values of theoretical quantities and of testing theoretical hypotheses are Sneed’s structuralist eliminationism and Glymour’s bootstrapping. Sneed attempts to solve the problem by eliminating theoretical quantities by means of the so-called Ramsey-Sneed sentence that represents the global empirical claim of the given theory. Glymour proposes to solve the problem by deducing the values of the theoretical quantities from the hypothesis to be tested. In those cases where the theoretical quantities are not (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  26
    Chad Hansen (2001). How Chinese Thought “Shapes” Western Thought. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:25-40.
    I begin this paper with some autobiographical reflections of my own journey in Chinese languages and philosophy not only in order to demonstrate how Chinese philosophy can change one’s attitudes toward Western philosophy, but also to suggest that the shift in philosophical perspective that occurs—when viewed through a Chinese lens—is reasonable. The second half of this paper consists of interpretative hypotheses about the content of Chinese philosophy vis-à-vis the West. I reflect more specifically how the different structure of the Chinese (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24.  12
    Tomoko Iwasawa (2001). Volume Introduction. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:13-33.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25.  17
    Andrzej Maciej Kaniowski (2001). Is Globalization a Real Threat to Democracy? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:235-246.
    In this paper, I argue that if the process of globalization leads to more severe social discrepancies that are not acceptable to many groups of people, then globalization would become the factor of primary relevance that threatens democracy; but if globalization and the present democratic order manage to solve social problems, then globalization will be a factor supporting the democratic way of thinking that is not oriented to exclusiveness. Globalization, I believe, coincides rather with a way of thinking that is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  16
    Theo A. F. Kuipers (2001). Epistemological Positions in the Light of Truth Approximation. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:79-88.
    I sketch the most important epistemological positions in the instrumentalism-realism debate, viz., instrumentalism, constructive empiricism, referential realism, and theory realism. I order them according to their answers to a number of successive leading questions, where every next question presupposes an affirmative answer to the foregoing one. I include the answer to questions concerning truth, as well as the most plausible answer to questions concerning truth approximation. Restricting my survey to the natural sciences and hence to the natural world, I indicate (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27.  14
    Safro Kwame (2001). Philosophy and Social Justice in the World Today. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:201-207.
    From an African point of view, there is no social justice in the world today and, from that point of view, there may not be much difference between the African, African-American, Asian, or even Western perspectives. There may, however, be some difference in the reasons given in support of this perspective or, rather, conclusion. The African perspective is heavily influenced by events such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade, colonialism, and, more recently, by the report of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  13
    Kwang-Sae Lee (2001). Justice From an Eastern Perspective. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:173-180.
    I will take David Hall and Roger Ames’s idea of “field and focus”—each unique individual is a unique focus in the communal field—as a central theme of the East Asian way of dealing with the relationship between the community and its constituent members. The pairing of these two concepts suggests the essential mutuality of the communal involvement of every person and the “insistent particularity” of each person. The worth of each individual becomes manifest only if the “egocentered” self yields to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  15
    Vladislav A. Lektorsky (2001). Scientific Knowledge as Historical and Cultural Phenomenon. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:205-212.
    I intend to demonstrate that the usual understanding of the ideals and norms of scientific cognition, which is often considered inseparable from the very notion of science itself, arose in concrete historical conditions; furthermore, these ideals and norms were connected with a certain type of research and a certain type of culture. As we are beginning to realize, such an understanding of ideals and norms does not work in other historical and cultural situations. I also try to show that some (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30.  17
    D. A. Masolo (2001). Communitarianism. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:209-228.
    How is the sense (knowledge and feelings) of community produced? What roles do various units of society play in producing such knowledge and feelings? What are the values of the ethic engendered by such knowledge and feelings? I suggest that a communitarian theory indigenous to African culture enables us to respond to these questions. Against the objections of those who advocate an ideology of modern democratic liberalism, I argue that the values of individual worth and freedom are indeed compatible with (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31.  27
    Jesús Mosterín (2001). Self-Conciousness and Cosmic Consciousness. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:213-222.
    This paper provides a brief survey of the human consciousness, beginning with the origins of humanism in the Renaissance period, moving on through the anthropocentrism of Enlightenment individualism, and its ensuing breakdown in our contemporary era. In agreement with the thesis that the task of the humanities is the enhancement of our selfconsciousness as human beings, I argue that only from the standpoint of a deeper and better-informed human self-consciousness, rooted in a cosmic consciousness, can we engage the unforeseen problems, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  31
    C. Ulises Moulines (2001). Ontology, Reduction, and the Unity of Science. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:19-27.
    Ontology should be conceived as supervenient on scientific theories. They tell us what categories of things there really are. Thus, we would have a unique system of ontology if we would attain the unity of science through a reductionist program. For this, it should be clear how a relation of intertheoretical reduction (with ontological implications) is to be conceived. A formal proposal is laid out in this paper. This allows us also to define the notion of a fundamental theory. Now, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33.  13
    Robert Cummings Neville (2001). Humanity and the Natural World. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:259-264.
    A key existential problem for paideia in the modern Western world—and perhaps for much elsewhere—is to build up the continuum of engagement from the subtle signs of contemporary scientific, artistic, and imaginative society down through the depths of nature. That continuum has been prevented by the modern creation of a fake culture of artificial self-sufficiency within which nature appears only tamed and cooked, and which deflects interpretive engagements of deeper nature except where leakages occur. What can be done about learning (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34.  11
    Guy Newland (2001). “Will This Potato Grow?”. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:61-72.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem of how empty persons can make distinctions between right and wrong within the two-truths doctrine of the Buddhist tradition. To do so, I rely on the teachings of the fifteenth- century founder of Tibetan Buddhism, Tsong kha pa Lo sang drak pa. I summarize Tsong kha pa’s exposition of the Buddhist tradition on this question, and then show how he held that profound emptiness, the ultimate truth found under scrupulous analysis of how things (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  33
    Gary S. Rosenkrantz (2001). What Is Life? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:125-134.
    I attempt to define the concept of ‘living organism’. Intuitively, a living organism is a substantial entity with a capacity for certain relevant activities. But biology has discovered that living organisms have a particular compositional or microstructural nature. This nature includes carbon-based macromolecules and water molecules. I argue that such living organisms belong to a natural kind of compound physical object, viz., carbon-based living organism. My definition of a living organism encompasses both the intuitively relevant activities and the empirically discovered (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36.  18
    Michael Ruse (2001). Reduction in Biology. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:43-50.
    In this paper I shall discuss the concept of reduction—ontological, methodological, and epistemological or theoretical—in the biological sciences, with special emphasis on genetics and evolutionary biology. I suggest that perhaps, because the biological world has a form different from the non-biological world, it is appropriate to think of terms or metaphors different from those we would use when trying to understand the inorganic world. As such, the attempt to show that the biological is simply a deductive consequence of the physicochemical (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37.  25
    Marcelo Sabatés (2001). Micro-Level Indeterminism and Macro-Level Determinism. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:11-18.
    Quantum mechanics, and the micro level indeterminacy it implies, is generally accepted by philosophers. So too naturalism on which macro states are held to supervene on micro states is now orthodox in the philosophy of mind and science. Still, in both fields it is frequently assumed that macro systems evolve deterministically. This assumption is commonly implicit and undefended, though at times it is made explicit and given minimal defense. In neither case is the incompatability of quantum indeterminacy, macro-micro dependence, and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38.  16
    James P. Scanlan (2001). Main Currents of Post-Soviet Philosophy in Russia. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:121-129.
    With the destruction of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Communist Party, Russia in the past few years has experienced a philosophical revolution unparalleled in suddenness and scope. Among the salient features of this revolution are the displacement of Marxism from its former, virtually monopolistic status to a distinctly subordinate and widely scorned position; the rediscovery of Russia’s pre-Marxist and anti-Marxist philosophers, in particular the religious thinkers of the past two centuries; increasing interest in Western philosophical traditions that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  12
    Lawrence Sklar (2001). What Is an Isolated System? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:51-57.
    In this paper, I want to focus attention on ways in which the role of idealization in science has been rather neglected by standard methodology, and suggest that this distinct role for idealization is the truly important role it plays in science. Further, I suggest that there are a number of important cases in theoretical science where the issue of idealization is not the issue of misrepresentation in some sense. Rather, the question is which of several alternative idealizations correctly represents (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  11
    Barry Smith (2001). On Forms of Communication In Philosophy. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:73-82.
    In previous work, I have drawn attention to certain systematic differences among philosophical traditions as regards to the literary forms that are prevalent in each. In this paper, however, I focus on the commentary form. I raise the question of why the use of commentaries abounds in most traditions except those transmitted in the English language and suggest that problems of translation are central to this issue. I argue that the appearance of commentaries in a philosophical tradition is a criterion (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41.  33
    Miriam Solomon (2001). Consensus in Science. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:193-204.
    Because the idea of consensus in contemporary philosophy of science is typically seen as the locus of progress, rationality, and, often, truth, Mill’s views on the undesirability of consensus have been largely dismissed. The historical data, however, shows that there are many examples of scientific progress without consensus, thus refuting the notion that consensus in science has any special epistemic status for rationality, scientific progress (success), or truth. What needs to be developed instead is an epistemology of dissent. I suggest (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  17
    Edward M. Swiderski (2001). Philosophy in Russia Today and the Legacy of Soviet Philosophy. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:105-119.
    In a comment to Richard Rorty, Andrzej Walicki underscored the contextual difference between philosophy in a society like the USA and in post-communist countries. Citizens of democratic societies live best with a sense of contingency, situational embeddedness, plural rationalities, and relative truth. In East/Central Europe (ECE), the demand is for epistemological and moral certainty. Walicki did not say how philosophers in ECE are meeting this demand. How do philosophers in post-communist societies respond to the demand for ‘objective and universal standards’ (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43.  14
    George Teschner (2001). The Humanities and Telecommunication Technology. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:247-257.
    Contemporary technology in the form of electronically managed interactive telecommunications is compatible with the goals and values of the humanities. Computerized communication (especially that of bulletin board technology) inverts the relationship between the degree of communicative interaction and the number of communicants. It is both mass communication and individualized participation. From the point of view of a theory of discourse, the bulletin board system is unique in that the ratio between the number of participants and the individualized nature of the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  3
    Evert van der Zweerde (2001). The Normalization of the History of Philosophy in Post-Soviet Russian Philosophical Culture. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:95-104.
    The notion of ‘philosophical culture’ can be defined as the totality of conditions of philosophical thought and theory. Among these conditions is an awareness of the historical background of the philosophical culture in question. This awareness, which plays an important cognitive and normative role, often takes the form of a relatively independent discipline: history of philosophy. Over the last decade, Russian historians of philosophy have been attempting to make the repressed past accessible to contemporary philosophy, often modifying their earlier, Soviet (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45.  14
    Ryszard Wójcicki (2001). What Do We Know? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:69-77.
    In what follows, I will address three fundamental questions regarding the theory of knowledge. They are as follows: What is knowledge? How can it be represented? How may one evaluate its quality? In this essay I outline a certain conceptual framework within which, I believe, these questions should be examined.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46.  3
    Guy Newland (2001). “Will This Potato Grow?”: Ultimate Analysis and Conventional Existence in the Madhyamika Philosophy of Tsong Kha Pa Lo Sang Drak Pa’s Lam Rim Chen Mo. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 12:61-72.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem of how empty persons can make distinctions between right and wrong within the two-truths doctrine of the Buddhist tradition. To do so, I rely on the teachings of the fifteenth- century founder of Tibetan Buddhism, Tsong kha pa Lo sang drak pa. I summarize Tsong kha pa’s exposition of the Buddhist tradition on this question, and then show how he held that profound emptiness, the ultimate truth found under scrupulous analysis of how things (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  16
    Evert Van Der Zweerde (2001). The Normalization of the History of Philosophy in Post-Soviet Russian Philosophical Culture. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 12:95-104.
    The notion of ‘philosophical culture’ can be defined as the totality of conditions of philosophical thought and theory. Among these conditions is an awareness of the historical background of the philosophical culture in question. This awareness, which plays an important cognitive and normative role, often takes the form of a relatively independent discipline: history of philosophy. Over the last decade, Russian historians of philosophy have been attempting to make the repressed past accessible to contemporary philosophy, often modifying their earlier, Soviet (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48.  25
    Pierre Aubenque (2001). Paideia et Physis dans la Conception Grecque Antique. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:251-259.
    Ce discours va partir des livres VI and VII de la République de Platon pour montrer en quoi il gouverne encore notre projet d’éducation philosophique de l’humanité, mais aussi en quoi il n’est pas seul représentatif de la conception grecque antique, à l’intérieur de laquelle sont nés plusiers modèles concurrents, générateurs d’une alternative peut-être encore instructive pour la discussion actuelle.
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  49
    Karl-Otto Apel (2001). Is a Political Conception of “Overlapping Consensus” an Adequate Basis for Global Justice? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:1-15.
    This paper considers how the problem of justice is to be globalized in the political theory of John Rawls. I discuss first the conception of “overlapping consensus” as an innovation in Rawls’s Political Liberalism and point out the recurrence of the problem of a philosophical foundation in his pragmatico-political interpretation. I suggest an intensification of Rawls’s notion of the “priority of the right to the good” as a philosophical correction to his political self-interpretation, and then finally carry through on a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  26
    Wolfgang Balzer (2001). Freedom and Equality in the Comparison of Political Systems. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:173-178.
    The notions of freedom and equality in a group are precisely defined in terms of individual exertions of influence or power. Freedom is discussed in the version ‘freedom from’ influence rather than in the version ‘freedom to do’ what one wants. It is shown that at the ideal conceptual level complete freedom implies equality. Given the plausibility of the definitions this shows that political ‘folk rhetorics’ in which freedom and equality often are put in opposition are misled and misleading. Quantitative (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  51.  18
    Daniel O. Dahlstrom (2001). Love, Honor, and Resentment. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:179-192.
    For much of contemporary ethical theory, the universalizability of the motive of a contemplated action forms a necessary part of the basis of the action’s moral character, legitimacy, or worth. Considering the possibility of resentment springing from the performance of an action also serves as a means of determining the morality of an action. However, considerations of universalizability and resentment are plainly inconsistent with the performance of some unselfish moral actions. I argue that the sphere of the moral adequacy of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  52.  15
    Peter A. French (2001). The Meaning of Democracy. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:105-116.
    I suggest that part of the reason the on-going debate in the West between the liberal democrats and the communitarians about the future and/or the ills of democracy is futile because both sides are committed to conceptually different accounts of democracy. The roots of communitarianism in the Athenian polis and that of liberalism in the atomistic individualism of the Enlightenment are contrasted in order to discern the motivating visions and overarching structures of both. Whereas communitarian democracy is willdominated, liberal democracy (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  53.  14
    Newton Garver (2001). Politics and Anti-Politics. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:207-217.
    Three very different things present themselves under the title “politics,” even when we restrict the domain of politics to civic concerns. One is the highly partisan activity that begins with the distinction between friends and enemies and culminates in wars or elections. Another is legislation, litigation, and diplomacy, often making use of conciliatory negotiation with adversaries (no longer “enemies” but honorable fellows). The third is civic action aimed at limiting, circumventing, or constraining the role of the first two. I call (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  54.  54
    Margaret P. Gilbert (2001). Sociality, Unity, Objectivity. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:153-160.
    Numerous social and political theorists have referred to social groups or societies as “unities.” What makes a unity of a social group? I address this question with special reference to the theory of social groups proposed in my books On Social Facts and Living Together: Rationality, Sociality and Obligation. I argue that social groups of a central kind require an underlying “joint commitment.” I explain what I mean by a “joint commitment” with care. If joint commitments in my sense underlie (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  55.  14
    Jonathan L. Gorman (2001). Justice and Toleration. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:43-50.
    Are there independent standards of justice by which we are to measure our activities, or is justice itself to be understood in relativistic terms that vary with locality or historical period? I wish to examine briefly how far two inconsistent positions can both be accepted. I suggest that perhaps our ordinary understanding of reality itself—and in particular political reality—is essentially the outcome of a time of contest, and that there are areas of political reality where matters may be best seen (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  56.  11
    Jorge J. E. Gracia (2001). Philosophy in American Public Life. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:129-140.
    My focus here is on two questions: Does philosophy have a place in contemporary American public life? and should philosophy have a place in American public life? Because my answer to the first question is negative, I also will discuss some of the reasons why I believe philosophy does not play a role in American public life. I suggest that philosophers have been excluded from the public conversation in part because the work of philosophy entails criticism and challenge—activities best accomplished (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  57.  20
    Michael Halberstam (2001). Aestheticism, or Aesthetic Approach, in Arendt and Heidegger on Politics. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:219-232.
    Hannah Arendt’s aesthetic approach to politics is regarded as frequently reflecting the anti-political substitution of nonpolitical concerns for political ones characteristic of the German tradition from Schiller to Heidegger and beyond. Arendt’s relationship to this tradition can be understood as squarely calling into question her central claim to have rehabilitated the political. This paper examines the relationship between Arendt’s and Heidegger’s political thought in light of the distinction between an aestheticism and an aesthetic approach. Two issues are at stake: can (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  58.  12
    Sirkku Kristiina Hellsten (2001). Communitarianism and Western Thought. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:141-151.
    Within the Western tradition we can find important and interesting philosophical differences between the continental European and the Anglo-American ethical and political outlooks towards biotechnology. The Anglo-American attitude appears based on naturalistic and empiricist views, while continental European viewpoints are built on idealistic liberal humanism. A Northern European view integrates both of the above-mentioned liberal traditions. The main problem is that although these different outlooks can be said to be liberal in their common promotion of equality, autonomy, and individual rights, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  59.  19
    Robert L. Holmes (2001). A Western Perspective on the Problem of Violence. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:193-205.
    The following sketches a constellation of views constituting the implicit philosophy of violence that one finds in much of the Western world. While I believe that much of this philosophy is deeply flawed, I shall, in a sense, be setting forth the case for violence because any hope of a nonviolent and peaceful world order must begin with a deeper understanding of violence and its attractiveness. After exploring various arguments for violence, I conclude that once we probe beneath the surface, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  60.  15
    Ioanna Kuçuradi (2001). Paideia as the Subjective Condition for a Sagacious Implementation of Human Rights. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:241-250.
    Two opposite tendencies characterize the intellectual and political developments in our world as a whole at the end of the twentieth century: on the one hand, we promote respect for human rights, i.e., for certain “universal” norms; on the other, we promote equal respect for all cultures, i.e., respect also for sets of parochial, “relative” norms, which are not only often discrepant among themselves, but often discrepant vis-à-vis human rights as well. In light of this, I argue that we need (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  61.  12
    Gabriel Vargas Lozano (2001). Liberal Democracy and Radical Democracy. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:97-103.
    While the word “democracy” has proliferated in social and political discourse in recent decades, I suggest that the liberal democracy of the past, connected as it is (especially in the West) to the market economy, is insufficient for the challenges facing the contemporary Latin American context. I assess and criticize democratic ideas in order to suggest that the way forward is radical democracy based on socio-economic and political justice. These, however, have to be articulated at a variety of levels, from (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  62.  26
    Neil MacCormick (2001). Rhetoric and the Rule of Law. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:51-67.
    The thesis that propositions of law are intrinsically arguable is opposed by the antithesis that the Rule of Law is valued for the sake of legal certainty. The synthesis considers the insights of theories of rhetoric and proceduralist theories of practical reason, then locates the problem of indeterminacy of law in the context of the challengeable character of governmental action under free governments. This is not incompatible with, but required by the Rule of Law, which is misstated as securing legal (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  63.  18
    Thomas Magnell (2001). Educating for Practical Reasoning. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:233-239.
    Some decisions can be made employing closed systems of practical reasoning. Other decisions require open systems of practical reasoning. These kinds of practical reasoning differ epistemically. Closed systems of practical reasoning can rely on thinking with a basis that is epistemically robust. Open systems of practical reasoning must also allow for thinking with a basis that is epistemically slight. In making moral and prudential decisions about what we are to make of our lives, we use open systems of practical reasoning (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  64.  16
    Rex Martin (2001). Rawls on Constitutional Consensus and the Problem of Stability. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:81-95.
    This paper lays out the background and main features of Rawls’s new theory of justice. This is a theory that he began adumbrating about 1980 and that is given its fullest statement in his recent book Political Liberalism. I identify the main patterns of justification Rawls attempts to provide for his new theory and suggest a problem with one of these patterns in particular. The main lines of my analysis engage Rawls’s idea of constitutional consensus and his account of political (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  65.  13
    William L. McBride (2001). Consumerist Cultural Hegemony Within a Cosmopolitan Order—Why Not? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:27-41.
    The issue that I wish to address is, why protest and criticize the increasing hegemony of what has been called the “culture of consumerism”? This “why not?” objection encompasses three distinct sets of questions. First, is not resistance to it akin to playing the role of King Canute by the sea? Second, is not acceptance of it dictated by the current liberal philosophical consensus that acknowledges and endorses an inevitable diversity in different individuals’ conceptions of what is good, and must (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  66.  11
    Antonio Perez-Estevez (2001). Intercultural Dialogue and Human Rights. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:17-25.
    In “The Law of Peoples,” John Rawls proposes a model for multi-culural dialogue based upon agreement. In liberal societies, we find agreement on issues such as human rights. However, I argue here that this proposal overcomes neither Eurocentrism nor Western-centrism, as liberal nations would decide which nations are “well organized hierarchical societies.” This second circle of nations would be merely invited peoples, who would not be allowed to contribute new proposals but only to accept the proposals of the liberal nations. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  67.  13
    David M. Rasmussen (2001). Volume Introduction. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:13-21.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  68.  15
    Olúfémi Táíwò (2001). On the Limits of Law at Century's End. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:69-80.
    In this paper, I examine the generally accepted idea that law has definite limits to what it can be used to achieve. Toward this end, I discuss the limits of law as suggested by the Truth Commissions and the Truth and Reconciliation Commissions (TRC), and summarize the divergences between law and the TRC. I suggest reasons why law may not serve or may underserve the purpose of healing and reconciliation in our time and conclude that the TRC is at best (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  69.  23
    Raimo Tuomela (2001). Collective Acceptance and Social Reality. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:161-171.
    Many social properties and notions are collectively made. Two collectively created aspects of the social world have been emphasized in recent literature. The first is that of the performative character of many social things (entities, properties). The second is the reflexive nature of many social concepts. The present account adds to this list a third feature, the collective availability or “for-groupness” of collective social items. It is a precise account of social notions and social facts in terms of collective appearance. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues