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  1. Thomas Boyer-Kassem (2014). Layers of Models in Computer Simulations. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):417-436.
    I discuss here the definition of computer simulations, and more specifically the views of Humphreys, who considers that an object is simulated when a computer provides a solution to a computational model, which in turn represents the object of interest. I argue that Humphreys's concepts are not able to analyse fully successfully a case of contemporary simulation in physics, which is more complex than the examples considered so far in the philosophical literature. I therefore modify Humphreys's definition of simulation. I (...)
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  2. Marco Buzzoni (2014). The Agency Theory of Causality, Anthropomorphism, and Simultaneity. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):375-395.
    The purpose of this article is to examine two important issues concerning the agency theory of causality: the charge of anthropomorphism and the relation of simultaneous causation. After a brief outline of the agency theory, sections 2–4 contain the refutation of the three main forms in which the charge of anthropomorphism is to be found in the literature. It will appear that it is necessary to distinguish between the subjective and the objective aspect of the concept of causation. This will (...)
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  3. François Claveau & Luis Mireles-Flores (2014). On the Meaning of Causal Generalisations in Policy-Oriented Economic Research. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):397-416.
    Current philosophical accounts of causation suggest that the same causal assertion can have different meanings. Yet, in actual social-scientific practice, the possible meanings of some causal generalisations intended to support policy prescriptions are not always spelled out. In line with a standard referentialist approach to semantics, we propose and elaborate on four questions to systematically elucidate the meaning of causal generalisations. The analysis can be useful to a host of agents, including social scientists, policy-makers, and philosophers aiming at being socially (...)
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  4. Jürgen Landes (2014). Tychomancy: Inferring Probability From Causal Structure. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):446-448.
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  5. Jessica Leech (2014). Properties. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):439-442.
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  6. Thomas Meier (2014). The Structure of the World: Metaphysics and Representation. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):443-445.
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  7. Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Francesco Bellucci (2014). New Light on Peirce's Conceptions of Retroduction, Deduction, and Scientific Reasoning. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):353-373.
    We examine Charles S. Peirce's mature views on the logic of science, especially as contained in his later and still mostly unpublished writings . We focus on two main issues. The first concerns Peirce's late conception of retroduction. Peirce conceived inquiry as performed in three stages, which correspond to three classes of inferences: abduction or retroduction, deduction, and induction. The question of the logical form of retroduction, of its logical justification, and of its methodology stands out as the three major (...)
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  8. Maria van der Schaar (2014). The Bloomsbury Companion to Analytic Philosophy. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (4):437-439.
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  9. Chiara Ambrosio (2014). Iconic Representations and Representative Practices. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):255-275.
    I develop an account of scientific representations building on Charles S. Peirce's rich, and still underexplored, notion of iconicity. Iconic representations occupy a central place in Peirce's philosophy, in his innovative approach to logic and in his practice as a scientist. Starting from a discussion of Peirce's approach to diagrams, I claim that Peirce's own representations are in line with his formulation of iconicity, and that they are more broadly connected to the pragmatist philosophy he developed in parallel with his (...)
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  10. Laura Felline (2014). Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):349-352.
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  11. Marion Godman (2014). Scientific Enquiry and Natural Kinds: From Planets to Mallards. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):343-346.
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  12. James W. McAllister (2014). Editor's Report, 2013. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):231-233.
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  13. Slobodan Perović (2014). Causation and Its Basis in Fundamental Physics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):347-349.
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  14. Graciana Petersen & Frank Zenker (2014). From Euler to Navier–Stokes: A Spatial Analysis of Conceptual Changes in Nineteenth-Century Fluid Dynamics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):235-253.
    This article provides a spatial analysis of the conceptual framework of fluid dynamics during the nineteenth century, focusing on the transition from the Euler equation to the Navier–Stokes equation. A dynamic version of Peter Gärdenfors's theory of conceptual spaces is applied which distinguishes changes of five types: addition and deletion of special laws; change of metric; change in importance; change in separability; addition and deletion of dimensions. The case instantiates all types but the deletion of dimensions. We also provide a (...)
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  15. Denise Phillips (2014). Hans Christian Ørsted: Reading Nature's Mind. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):341-343.
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  16. Dunja Šešelja & Christian Straßer (2014). Concerning Peter Vickers's Recent Treatment of ‘Paraconsistencitis’. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):325-340.
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  17. Kari L. Theurer (2014). Complexity-Based Theories of Emergence: Criticisms and Constraints. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):277-301.
    In recent years, many philosophers of science have attempted to articulate a theory of non-epistemic emergence that is compatible with mechanistic explanation and incompatible with reductionism. The 2005 account of Fred C. Boogerd et al. has been particularly influential. They argued that a systemic property was emergent if it could not be predicted from the behaviour of less complex systems. Here, I argue that Boogerd et al.'s attempt to ground emergence in complexity guarantees that we will see emergence, but at (...)
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  18. Henrik Thorén (2014). Resilience as a Unifying Concept. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):303-324.
    In sustainability research and elsewhere, the notion of resilience is attracting growing interest and causing heated debate. Those focusing on resilience often emphasize its potential to bridge, integrate, and unify disciplines. This article attempts to evaluate these claims. Resilience is investigated as it appears in several fields, including materials science, psychology, ecology, and sustainability science. It is argued that two different concepts of resilience are in play: one local, the other global. The former refers to the ability to return to (...)
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  19. Markus I. Eronen & Daniel S. Brooks (2014). Interventionism and Supervenience: A New Problem and Provisional Solution. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):185-202.
    The causal exclusion argument suggests that mental causes are excluded in favour of the underlying physical causes that do all the causal work. Recently, a debate has emerged concerning the possibility of avoiding this conclusion by adopting Woodward's interventionist theory of causation. Both proponents and opponents of the interventionist solution crucially rely on the notion of supervenience when formulating their positions. In this article, we consider the relation between interventionism and supervenience in detail and argue that importing supervenience relations into (...)
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  20. Kazumi Inoue (2014). Dialectical Contradictions and Classical Formal Logic. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):113-132.
    A dialectical contradiction can be appropriately described within the framework of classical formal logic. It is in harmony with the law of noncontradiction. According to our definition, two theories make up a dialectical contradiction if each of them is consistent and their union is inconsistent. It can happen that each of these two theories has an intended model. A number of examples of this are to be found in the history of science. -/- .
     
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  21. Robert Kowalenko (2014). Ceteris Paribus Laws: A Naturalistic Account. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):133-155.
    An otherwise lawlike generalisation hedged by a ceteris paribus (CP) clause qualifies as a law of nature, if the CP clause can be substituted with a set of conditions derived from the multivariate regression model used to interpret the empirical data in support of the gen- eralisation. Three studies in human biology that use regression analysis are surveyed, showing that standard objections to cashing out CP clauses in this way—based on alleged vagueness, vacuity, or lack of testability—do not apply. CP (...)
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  22. Maarten Boudry & Michael Vlerick (2014). Natural Selection Does Care About Truth. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):65-77.
    (2014). Natural Selection Does Care about Truth. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.1080/02698595.2014.915651.
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  23. John Earman & Giovanni Valente (2014). Relativistic Causality in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):1-48.
    This paper surveys the issue of relativistic causality within the framework of algebraic quantum field theory . In doing so, we distinguish various notions of causality formulated in the literature and study their relationships, and thereby we offer what we hope to be a useful taxonomy. We propose that the most direct expression of relativistic causality in AQFT is captured not by the spectrum condition but rather by the axiom of local primitive causality, in that it entails a form of (...)
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  24. Vera Hoffmann-Kolss (2014). Interventionism and Higher-Level Causation. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):49-64.
    Several authors have recently claimed that the notorious causal exclusion problem, according to which higher-level causes are threatened with causal pre-emption by lower-level causes, can be avoided if causal relevance is understood in terms of Woodward's interventionist account of causation. They argue that if causal relevance is defined in interventionist terms, there are cases where only higher-level properties, but not the lower-level properties underlying them, qualify as causes of a certain effect. In this article, I show that the line of (...)
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  25. Ana Hulton (2014). Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):102-105.
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  26. Milena Ivanova (2014). Explaining Science's Success: Understanding How Scientific Knowledge Works. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):105-108.
  27. Ekaterina Svetlova (2014). Modelling Beyond Application: Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in Modern Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):79-98.
    In recent years, philosophers of science have begun to realize that the clear separation of the creation of models in academia and the application of models outside science is not possible. When these philosophers address hybrid contexts in which science is entwined with policy, business, and other realms of society, these often practically oriented realms no longer represent ‘the surroundings’ of science but rather are considered an essential part of it. I argue—and demonstrate empirically—that the judgement of a theory or (...)
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  28. Hein van den Berg (2014). Kant's Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy [Review]. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):99-101.
  29. Tiziana Vistarini (2014). String Theory and the Scientific Method. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):108-111.
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  30. Valia Allori (2014). The Road to Maxwell's Demon: Conceptual Foundations of Statistical Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):453-456.
  31. Kelly Joyce (2014). Chagas Disease: History of a Continent's Scourge. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):459-461.
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  32. Timothy D. Lyons (2014). A Historically Informed Modus Ponens Against Scientific Realism: Articulation, Critique, and Restoration. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):369-392.
    There are two primary arguments against scientific realism, one pertaining to underdetermination, the other to the history of science. While these arguments are usually treated as altogether distinct, P. Kyle Stanford's ‘problem of unconceived alternatives’ constitutes one kind of synthesis: I propose that Stanford's argument is best understood as a broad modus ponens underdetermination argument, into which he has inserted a unique variant of the historical pessimistic induction. After articulating three criticisms against Stanford's argument and the evidence that he offers, (...)
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  33. Reza Maleeh & Parisa Amani (2014). Pragmatism, Bohr, and the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):353-367.
    In this article, we argue that although Bohr's version of the Copenhagen interpretation is in line with several key elements of logical positivism, pragmatism is the closest approximation to a classification of the Copenhagen interpretation, whether or not pragmatists directly influenced the key figures of the interpretation. Pragmatism already encompasses important elements of operationalism and logical positivism, especially the liberalized Carnapian reading of logical positivism. We suggest that some elements of the Copenhagen interpretation, which are in line with logical positivism, (...)
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  34. Francesca Pero (2014). Models as Make-Believe: Imagination, Fiction and Scientific Representation. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):447-450.
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  35. Samuel Ruhmkorff (2014). Global and Local Pessimistic Meta-Inductions. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):409-428.
    The global pessimistic meta-induction argues from the falsity of scientific theories accepted in the past to the likely falsity of currently accepted scientific theories. I contend that this argument commits a statistical error previously unmentioned in the literature and is self-undermining. I then compare the global pessimistic meta-induction to a local pessimistic meta-induction based on recent negative assessments of the reliability of medical research. If there is any future in drawing pessimistic conclusions from the history of science, it lies in (...)
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  36. David Teira (2014). Philosophy of Medicine: Causality, Evidence and Explanation. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):456-458.
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  37. Wong Muk Yan (2014). Reliability and External Validity of Neurobiological Experiments. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):429-446.
    Reliability and external validity are two fundamental values that pose incompatible constraints on neurobiological experiments. The more reliability an experimental result achieves, the less external validity it earns, and vice versa. In this article, I propose an externalist interpretation of external validity: the external validity of an experimental result depends not only on how much complexity is built into an experimental design, but also on the relationship between the experimental result and other related experiments. This externalist interpretation, which explains how (...)
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  38. Gábor Á Zemplén (2014). A History of Optics From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):450-453.
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  39. Tudor M. Baetu (2014). Chance, Experimental Reproducibility, and Mechanistic Regularity. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):253-271.
    Examples from the sciences showing that mechanisms do not always succeed in producing the phenomena for which they are responsible have led some authors to conclude that the regularity requirement can be eliminated from characterizations of mechanisms. In this article, I challenge this conclusion and argue that a minimal form of regularity is inextricably embedded in examples of elucidated mechanisms that have been shown to be causally responsible for phenomena. Examples of mechanistic explanations from the sciences involve mechanisms that have (...)
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  40. Steve Clarke & Adrian Walsh (2014). Imperialism, Progress, Developmental Teleology, and Interdisciplinary Unification. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):341-351.
    In a previous article in this journal, we examined John Dupré's claim that ‘scientific imperialism’ can lead to ‘misguided’ science being considered acceptable. Here, we address criticisms raised by Ian J. Kidd and Uskali Mäki against that article. While both commentators take us to be offering our own account of scientific imperialism that goes beyond that developed by Dupré, and go on to criticise what they take to be our account, our actual ambitions were modest. We intended to ‘explicate the (...)
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  41. Uskali Mäki (2014). Scientific Imperialism: Difficulties in Definition, Identification, and Assessment. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):325-339.
    This article identifies and analyses issues related to defining and evaluating the so-called scientific imperialism. It discusses John Dupré's account, suggesting that it is overly conservative and does not offer a definition of scientific imperialism in not presenting it as a phenomenon of interdisciplinarity. It then discusses the recent account by Steve Clarke and Adrian Walsh, taking issue with ideas such as illegitimate occupation, counterfactual progress, and culturally significant values. A more comprehensive and refined framework of my own is then (...)
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  42. James W. McAllister (2014). Editor's Report, 2012. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):233-234.
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  43. Alexander Reutlinger (2014). Can Interventionists Be Neo-Russellians? Interventionism, the Open Systems Argument, and the Arrow of Entropy. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):273-293.
  44. Jutta Schickore & Klodian Coko (2014). Using Multiple Means of Determination. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):295-313.
    This article examines a metaphilosophical issue, namely existing disagreements in philosophy of science about the significance of using multiple means of determination in scientific practice. We argue that this disagreement can, in part, be resolved by separating different questions that can be asked about the use of multiple means of determination, including the following: what can be concluded from the convergence of data or the convergence of claims about phenomena? Are the conclusions drawn from the convergence of data and of (...)
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  45. Mauricio Suárez (2014). Fictions, Conditionals, and Stellar Astrophysics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):235-252.
    This article argues in favour of an inferential role for fictions in scientific modelling. The argument proceeds by means of a detailed case study, namely models of the internal structure of stars in stellar astrophysics. The main assumptions in such models are described, and it is argued that they are best understood as useful fictions. The role that conditionals play in these models is explained, and it is argued that fictional assumptions play an important role as either background or antecedent (...)
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