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  1.  1
    Marco Annoni & Franklin G. Miller (2016). Placebo Effects and the Ethics of Therapeutic Communication: A Pragmatic Perspective. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):79-103.
    Doctor–patient communication is a crucial component in any therapeutic encounter. Physicians use words to formulate diagnoses and prognoses, to disclose the risks and benefits of medical interventions, and to explain why, how, and when a therapy will be administered to a patient. Likewise, patients communicate to describe their symptoms, to make sense of their conditions, to report side effects, to explore other therapeutic options, and to share their feelings. Throughout the history of medicine, the ethics of the doctor–patient communication has (...)
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  2.  3
    Benjamin Bautz (2016). What is the Common Morality, Really? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):29-45.
    Principles of Biomedical Ethics, the magnum opus of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, remains one of the most influential bioethical works developed in the last thirty-five years. It continues to be the subject of vigorous debate in the bioethics literature, having undergone several substantial revisions since the publication of the first edition in 1979. In the seventh edition of Principles, published in 2013, Beauchamp and Childress continue their practice of clarifying, revising, and strengthening their views in response to waves of (...)
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  3.  3
    Jason Brennan (2016). Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics by Joseph Heath. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):1-4.
    Until Joseph Heath came along, philosophical business ethics was in a bad way. To the extent it’s still in a bad way, perhaps it’s because Heath has had insufficient influence. Before Heath, much of the debate in the field was between two major theories—stockholder and stakeholder theory. Both of these theories are either false, or vacuous and empty, depending on the interpretation. Heath has to some degree rescued the field by providing what is perhaps the only good general theory of (...)
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  4. Nancy M. P. King (2016). Shaping Our Selves: On Technology, Flourishing, and a Habit of Thinking by Erik Parens. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):5-10.
    In Shaping Our Selves, Erik Parens offers both a personal history of bioethics and a cleverly clarifying lens to train on disputes in bioethics about emerging technologies. The question for readers is whether this lens, as useful as it is, leaves too much outside our field of vision. Parens, born in 1957, comes from the first wave of bioethics scholars—those of us who still mostly happened into bioethics as a field, before it was sufficiently well-established to be identified as a (...)
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  5. Rebecca Kukla (2016). Editorial Note. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):vii-ix.
    Practical ethics is a peculiar field; it has no agreed-upon methods or foundations and takes a wide variety of forms. Its relationship to traditional “pure” philosophical ethics is contested and inconsistent. Since its beginnings, the Kennedy Institute of Ethics has been at the forefront of methodological reflections on the nature, grounding, and appropriate standards for practical ethics. Institute scholars such as Tom Beauchamp, Robert Veatch, and Henry Richardson have been among the most influential philosophers engaged in such metaethical conversations. Correspondingly, (...)
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  6.  1
    Miles Little (2016). Making Medical Knowledge by Miriam Solomon. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):10-15.
    Robin Downie has distinguished between two enduring cognitive and practical attitudes that have determined the way that doctors and societies thought about medicine. The Hippocratic tradition attached its faith to empirical observation and rational induction and deduction, while the Asklepian approach was holistic, intuitive and strongly spiritual. Hippocrates sought to generalize from individual observations, to generate rules and guidelines from pooled experience. Asklepian physicians believed that cure lay in understanding the personal experience of each patient, and in providing an ambience (...)
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  7.  2
    Norbert Paulo (2016). Specifying Specification. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):1-28.
    As late as 1984, five years after the first edition of the seminal Principles of Biomedical Ethics appeared, Tom Beauchamp lamented that applied ethics is not taken seriously as a distinct field of philosophy. In order to change that attitude he argued for effacing the distinction between applied and classical ethics. After all, philosophers of applied ethics do the same as all other philosophers: they analyze concepts, use certain strategies to test or justify beliefs, and explicate hidden premises in arguments. (...)
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  8. Laura Specker Sullivan (2016). Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse Across Cultures. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):47-78.
    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in (...)
     
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  9.  1
    Laura Specker Sullivan (2016). Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse Across Cultures. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):47-78.
    Bioethics seeks to answer questions and resolve problems that change along with developments in medicine and biology. Ethical justification plays a crucial role in bioethical analysis by clarifying the reasons that support complex judgments about particular actions and general policies.1 It helps bioethicists to determine what to allow, forbid, support, and minimize. When there is disagreement, it can also aid understanding of competing positions. However, at times, disagreement on particular issues becomes so entrenched that understanding seems impossible. In such circumstances, (...)
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  10.  9
    David R. Buchanan (2016). Promoting Justice and Autonomy in Public Policies to Reduce the Health Consequences of Obesity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):395-417.
    There is significant concern among health professionals today about the toll of overweight and obesity on the health of the American people, and indeed, the world population. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2010, more than two-thirds of Americans ages 20 and up were overweight greater than 25 in adults), and fully 35.7% of all adults—more than 78 million Americans —met the clinical definition of obese. The prevalence of overweight and obesity continued to increase (...)
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  11.  5
    Gregory Dolin (2016). Licensed to Practice: The Supreme Court Defines the American Medical Profession by James C. Mohr. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):6-10.
    When picking up a book titled Licensed to Practice: The Supreme Court Defines the American Medical Profession, one cannot be faulted for expecting a rather dry legal discourse on the Supreme Court case that cemented medical licensure as the norm of American life. James Mohr dispels these expectations from the very first page of the volume. Instead of recitation of legal doctrine, Mohr begins with a murder mystery. While we know from the very first pages the answer to “whodunit,” the (...)
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  12.  8
    Rebecca Kukla (2016). Editorial Note. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):vii-ix.
    This issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal continues two conversations that have been developing in this journal over the last few years, and introduces a new and timely one. Kevin Elliot and Paul Mushak’s paper, “Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science,” continues an ongoing debate in this journal over the role of values in shaping scientific methodology and communication, and how this role should be managed at the level (...)
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  13.  9
    Franklin G. Miller & Scott Y. H. Kim (2016). Personal Care in Learning Health Care Systems. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):419-435.
    The “learning health care system” is being heralded as offering great potential for improving the quality and cost-worthiness of medical care by closely integrating the care of patients with the accumulation of aggregate data that can guide evidence-based medicine. By using electronic medical records, routine patient care and administrative data will be available for systematic observational studies. With the aid of these electronic medical records, quality-improvement studies of institutional practices and pragmatic, comparative effectiveness randomized trials of individual treatments could become (...)
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  14.  5
    Stephanie Morain (2016). Evaluating the Legitimacy of Contemporary Legal Strategies for Obesity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):369-393.
    In recent years, various obesity-related policy strategies have fostered rigorous debate in both the academic and popular literature: should a city restrict soda size to reduce obesity rates? Should low-income individuals receiving government food assistance through the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program be prohibited from using such funds to purchase soda or other “junk foods?” Should schools undertake screening and surveillance of student body mass index? These strategies pose a central challenge for public health regulation: what is the role of government (...)
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  15.  11
    Paul Mushak & Kevin C. Elliott (2016). Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):335-367.
    The ability of powerful and well-funded interest groups to steer scientific research in directions that advance their goals has become a significant social concern. This ability is increasingly being recognized in the peer-reviewed literature and in the findings of deliberative expert consensus committees. For example, there is increasing recognition that efforts to address climate change have been stymied in part by a powerful network of conservative foundations, which fund think tanks and other organizations that constitute a “climate change counter movement”. (...)
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  16.  10
    Uwe Steinhoff (2016). Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry by Matthew H. Kramer. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):1-6.
    The blurb of Matthew Kramer’s book, Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry, states that the book “seeks to explain why interrogational and other types of torture are always and everywhere morally wrong.” This might give the prospective reader the impression that the book takes an absolutist stance against torture, but this impression would be misleading. The explanation of the discrepancy between the book’s self-presentation and what it is actually saying lies in the idiosyncratic terminology Kramer employs throughout the book. (...)
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  17.  7
    Will C. van den Hoonaard (2016). The Censor's Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research by Carl E. Schneider. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):11-15.
    The Censor’s Hand invites us to explore the murky side of formal research-ethics review in the United States, as embodied in “Institutional Review Boards”. Amidst some 340 publications and several blogs that have taken formal research-ethics review to task, this book is the seventh detailed monograph on this topic—the others are Robert Klitzman’s The Ethics Police?, Zachary Schrag’s Ethical Imperialism, Laura Stark’s Behind Closed Doors, and my own works, Walking the Tightrope, The Seduction of Ethics, and The Ethics Rupture. This (...)
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