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  1.  5
    Michael Drieschner (2013). A Note on the Quantum Mechanical Measurement Process. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):201-213.
    Traditionally one main emphasis of the quantum mechanical measurement theory is on the question how the pure state of the compound system 'measured system + measuring apparatus' is transformed into the 'mixture' of all possible results of that measurement, weighted with their probability: the so-called “disappearance of the interference terms”. It is argued in this note that in reality there is no such transformation, so that there is no need to account for such a transformation theoretically. _German_ Gewöhnlich liegt ein (...)
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  2. Alexander Ehmann (2013). Messung und Invarianz – ein Beitrag zum Metrologischen Strukturenrealismus. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):215-251.
    [ENGLISH] The present article is a contribution to the development of metrological structural realism. This position of philosophy of science goes back to Matthias Neuber, who introduces it as a third variation of the main structural realisms: epistemic structural realism and ontic structural realism. Here, Neuber attempts to tackle the problems of OSR and ESR while preserving their respective strengths. Of central importance to his approach, are the concepts of invariance, structure and, especially, measurement. Starting from Eino Kaila’s „non-linguistic, realist (...)
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  3.  20
    David Hommen (2013). Negative Properties, Real and Irreducible. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):383-406.
    Few philosophers believe in the existence of so-called negative properties. Indeed, many find it mind-boggling just to imagine such properties. In contrast, I think not only that negative properties are quite imaginable, but also that there are good reasons for believing that some such properties actually exist. In this paper, I want to defend the reality and irreducibility, or genuineness, as I call it, of negative properties. After briefly presenting the idea of a negative property, I collect commonly invoked tests (...)
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  4.  1
    Andrej Krause (2013). Bolzano über Inbegriffe von Substanzen. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):365-381.
    The paper analyzes one important aspect of Bernard Bolzano's ontology, namely his concept of collections of substances. It deals first with his concept of substance and it examines the relation between substances and collections of substances. It discusses further his distinction between continuous and non-continuous collections of substances, especially his concept of material things. Finally, it treats his concept of the world. According to Bolzano, the world is the continuous collection of all dependent substances. The acceptance of a collection which (...)
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  5.  12
    Ladislav Kvasz (2013). Heidegger's Interpretation of Mathematical Science in the Light of Husserl's Concept of Mathematization in the Krisis. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):337-363.
    There are many interpretations of the birth of modern science. Most of them are, nevertheless, confined to the analysis of certain historical episodes or technical details, while leaving the very notion of mathematization unanalyzed. In my opinion this is due to a lack of a proper philosophical framework which would show the process of mathematization as something radically new. Most historians assume that the world is just like it is depicted by science. Thus they are not aware of the radical (...)
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  6.  2
    Lukas Nickel & Tobias Jung (2013). Messung und Unschärfe in der klassischen Physik. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):253-275.
    There is the widely held view that quantum physics differs fundamentally from classical physics regarding measurements. In order to prepare the ground for settling this question we discuss the consequences it has for classical physics if one includes measurement in the theory. After explaining the terms measurement and error it is argued that every measurement can be reduced to a measurement of length and/or number. Additionally to the wellknown statistical and systematical errors we introduce the concept of classical uncertainty which (...)
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  7.  29
    Matias Slavov (2013). Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Hume's Conception of Causality. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):277-305.
    This article investigates the relationship between Hume’s causal philosophy and Newton ’s philosophy of nature. I claim that Newton ’s experimentalist methodology in gravity research is an important background for understanding Hume’s conception of causality: Hume sees the relation of cause and effect as not being founded on a priori reasoning, similar to the way that Newton criticized non - empirical hypotheses about the properties of gravity. However, according to Hume’s criteria of causal inference, the law of universal gravitation is (...)
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  8.  5
    Anne Christina Thaeder (2013). John Herschel und der Newton des Grashalms. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):307-335.
    In this article I would like to show that Charles Darwin conscientiously developed his theory of natural selection conforming to criteria of John Herschel, one of the leading philosophers of science at his time. Therefor I will present Herschel's methodology and search for the criteria in Darwin's _Origin of Species_. I conclude with Herschel's negative reaction to Darwin's theory, showing that Herschel himself probably could not comply with his own criteria. _German_ In diesem Aufsatz möchte ich zeigen, dass sich Charles (...)
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  9.  8
    Friedel Weinert (2013). EPR and the 'Passage' of Time. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (2):173-199.
    The essay revisits the puzzle of the 'passage' of time in relation to EPR-type measurements and asks what philosophical consequences can be drawn from them. Some argue that the lack of invariance of temporal order in the measurement of a space-like related EPR pair, under relativistic motion, casts serious doubts on the 'reality' of the lapse of time. Others argue that certain features of quantum mechanics establish a tensed theory of time – understood here as Possibilism or the growing block (...)
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  10.  11
    Simon Friederich (2013). Interpreting Heisenberg Interpreting Quantum States. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (1):85-114.
    The paper investigates possible readings of the later Heisenberg's remarks on the nature of quantum states. It discusses, in particular, whether Heisenberg should be seen as a proponent of the epistemic conception of states – the view that quantum states are not descriptions of quantum systems but rather reflect the state assigning observers' epistemic relations to these systems. On the one hand, it seems plausible that Heisenberg subscribes to that view, given how he defends the notorious "collapse of the wave (...)
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  11.  4
    Marco Giovanelli (2013). Leibniz-Äquivalenz vs. Einstein-Äquivalenz. Was man von der Logisch-Empiristischen Interpretation des Punkt-Koinzidenz-Arguments lernen kann. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (1):115-164.
    The discovery that Einstein's celebrated argument for general covariance, the 'point-coincidence argument ', was actually a response to the ' hole argument ' has generated an intense philosophical debate in the last thirty years. Even if the philosophical consequences of Einstein's argument turned out to be highly controversial, the protagonists of such a debate seem to agree on considering Einstein's argument as an expression of 'Leibniz equivalence', a modern version of Leibniz's celebrated indiscernibility arguments against Newton's absolute space. The paper (...)
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  12.  25
    Frank Hofmann & Ferdinand Pöhlmann (2013). Seeing Oneself Through the Eyes of Others. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (1):25-43.
    Ansgar Beckermann's account of self-consciousness can be seen as an attempt to locate the origin of self-conscious states in social cognition. It is assumed that in order to acquire self-consciousness, a cognitive system has to 'see itself through the eyes of the others'. This account, however, is doomed to failure, for principled reasons. It cannot provide a satisfactory explanation of the special, identification-free reference of first-person thoughts and, thus, fails to explain crucial features of attitudes. In addition, Beckermann's account exhibits (...)
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  13.  3
    Olaf L. Müller (2013). Verschmierte Spuren der Unfreiheit: Wissenschaftsphilosophische Klarstellung zu angeblichen Artefakten bei Benjamin Libet. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (1):45-83.
    Benjamin Libet's celebrated experiments concerning freedom elicited numerous attempts of _philosophical_ repudiation. Ten years ago, however, Judy Trevena and Jeff Miller published a _technical_ objection; they claim to have detected a,,smearing artifact" in Libet's calculations. This rests on a misunderstanding of Libet's methodology. In my reconstruction of Libet's argument, he draws an abductive inference to the best explanation. Now, Trevena's and Miller's objection does indeed lead to alternative explanations of Libet's measurements. These alternatives are _ad hoc_ and extremely improbable. They (...)
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  14.  19
    Oliver R. Scholz (2013). Wissenschaftstheorie, Erkenntnistheorie und Metaphysik – Klärungen zu einem ungeklärten Verhältnis. Philosophia Naturalis 50 (1):5-24.
    The paper aims at clarifying the relationship between philosophy of science, epistemology and metaphysics. I begin with a characterization of philosophy. Philosophy as a second order discipline differs from any of the individual sciences. Typically, it attempts to answer questions of the form "How is it possible that p?". Next I present the aims and tasks of epistemology, before, finally, I turn to the relationship between philosophy of science and epistemology. At this point, metaphysics enters the scene. It turns out (...)
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