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  1. Marc Aguert & Virginie Laval (2013). Request Complexity is No More a Problem When the Requests Are Ironic. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):329-339.
    Although the topic has been extensively studied, many issues about understanding of indirect requests in children are still unsolved. Our contribution is to distinguish genuine and ironic hints, focusing on the latter. We examined the understanding of ironic hints and ironic imperatives in 5- to 9-year-old children and in adults, in various situational contexts . The main result of this study was that ironic hints were more difficult to understand than ironic imperatives only when the context was neutral. When the (...)
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  2. Alessandro Capone (2013). The Role of Pragmatics in Constructing the Rational Law-Maker. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):399-414.
    The recent debate on pragmatics and the law has found ways to circumvent an important distinction, originally drawn by Dascal and Wróblewski , between the historical law-maker, the current law-maker, and the ideal/rational law-maker.1 By insisting on the relationship between the rational law-maker and contextualism and textualism , I want to redress this fault in current discussions. In this paper, I start with general considerations on pragmatics, intentionality in ordinary conversation, and intentionality in the context of judiciary proceedings and legal (...)
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  3. Jessica de Villiers, Brooke Myers & Robert J. Stainton (2013). Revisiting Pragmatic Abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-Up Study with Controls. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):253-269.
    In a 2007 paper, we argued that speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders exhibit pragmatic abilities which are surprising given the usual understanding of communication in that group. That is, it is commonly reported that people diagnosed with an ASD have trouble with metaphor, irony, conversational implicature and other non-literal language. This is not a matter of trouble with knowledge and application of rules of grammar. The difficulties lie, rather, in successful communicative interaction. Though we did find pragmatic errors within literal (...)
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  4. Minyao Huang (2013). Tolerance Effect in Categorisation with Vague Predicates. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):340-358.
    Vagueness is understood as the problem of associating imprecise application criteria with ordinary predicates such as ‘bald’ or ‘blue’. It is often construed as due to one’s tolerance to a minute difference in forming a verdict on the application of a vague predicate. This paper reports an experiment conducted to test the effect of tolerance, using as paradigm categorisation tasks performed with respect to transitional series, e.g., a series of tomatoes from red to orange. The findings suggest a negative effect (...)
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  5. Geoffrey Lloyd (2013). Yaron Ezrahi, Imagined Democracies: Necessary Political Fiction S. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):415-424.
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  6. Gerardine M. Pereira (2013). Going to the Zoo: The Role of Gaze and Other Non-Verbal Behavior in Task-Based Interactions. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):380-398.
    This paper reports on an investigation of gaze patterns and other non-verbal behavior in dyadic, problem-solving based interactions. In a planning activity, participants are given an instruction sheet and a physical map of a zoo. Both participants must coordinate their actions to find a common solution to the problem. This paper aims at examining how activity-based interactions vary from other interactions, such as everyday conversation and story-telling . The findings of this paper suggest that participants’ non-verbal behavior, such as smiling, (...)
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  7. Fernando Martinez-Manrique & Agustin Vicente (2013). What is Said by a Metaphor: The Role of Salience and Conventionality. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):304-328.
    Contextualist theorists have recently defended the views (a) that metaphor-processing can be treated on a par with other meaning changes, such as narrowing or transfer, and (b) that metaphorical contents enter into “what is said” by an utterance. We do not dispute claim (a) but consider that claim (b) is problematic. Contextualist theorists seem to leave in the hands of context the explanation about why it is that some meaning changes are directly processed, and thus plausibly form part of “what (...)
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  8. Prakash Mondal (2013). How Does the Faculty of Language Relate to Rules, Axioms, and Constraints? Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):270-303.
    This paper explores the link between rules of grammar, grammar formalisms and the architecture of the language faculty. In doing so, it provides a flexible meta-level theory of the language faculty through the postulation of general axioms that govern the interaction of different components of grammar. The idea is simply that such an abstract formulation allows us to view the structure of the language faculty independently of specific theoretical frameworks/formalisms. It turns out that the system of rules, axioms and constraints (...)
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  9. Rainer Vesterinen (2013). Instructions or Dominion?: The Meaning of the Spanish Subjunctive Mood. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):359-379.
    In a highly interesting study, Dam and Dam-Jensen put forward the idea that the indicative and the subjunctive mood in Spanish complementizer phrases can be explained by the instructions they convey. The indicative instructs the addressee to locate the situation created by the verb relative to the situation of utterance, whereas the subjunctive instructs the addressee not to locate the situation described by the verb relative to the situation of utterance. Although this explanation is most appealing, the present paper argues (...)
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  10. Guangwu Feng (2013). Speaker’s Meaning and Non-Cancellability. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):117-138.
    This article intends to reveal the unity between intention and other Gricean notions of signification, cancellability, and context. We argue that the total signification of an utterance is ultimately determined by speaker’s intention. We start with Grice’s conception of meaningNN and then proceed to argue that what is actually meant (both what is said and what is implicated) is hard to cancel without rendering the whole utterance self-contradictory. It is noted that cancelling p be differentiated from correcting p . It (...)
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  11. Sara Greco Morasso (2013). Multivoiced Decisions: A Study of Migrants’ Inner Dialogue and its Connection to Social Argumentation. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):55-80.
    This paper sets out to explore the relation between social argumentation and inner debate by taking into account suggestions from argumentation studies and from social and discursive psychology. It develops Dascal’s (2005) claim that there are metonymical and structural relations between the two realms of debate by substantiating it with data taken from international migrants’ inner debates at moments of difficult decisions. The data are drawn from the experience of migrating mothers who have to decide whether to go back or (...)
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  12. Aaron Kagan & Charles Lassiter (2013). The Coupling-Constitution Fallacy: Much Ado About Nothing. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):178-192.
    The coupling-constitution fallacy claims that arguments for extended cognition involve the inference of “x and y constitute z” from “x is coupled to y” and that such inferences are fallacious. We argue that the coupling-constitution fallacy fails in its goal to undermine the hypothesis of extended cognition: appeal to the coupling-constitution fallacy to rule out possible empirical counterexamples to intracranialism is fallacious. We demonstrate that appeals to coupling-constitution worries are problematic by constructing the fallacious argument against the hypothesis of extended (...)
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  13. Charles Austin Leeds & Mary Lee A. Jensvold (2013). The Communicative Functions of Five Signing Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):224-247.
    Speech act theory describes units of language as acts which function to change the behavior or beliefs of the partner. Therefore, with every utterance an individual seeks a communicative goal that is the underlying motive for the utterance’s production; this is the utterance’s function. Studies of deaf and hearing human children classify utterances into categories of communicative function. This study classified signing chimpanzees’ utterances into the categories used in human studies. The chimpanzees utilized all seven categories of communicative functions and (...)
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  14. Greg L. Lowhorn (2013). Mauro Giuffrè (Ed.), Studies in Semiotic Textology in Honour of János S. Petöfi. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):249-253.
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  15. Prakash Mondal (2013). How the Intentionality of Emotion Can Be Traced to the Intensionality of Emotion: Intensionality in Emotive Predicates. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):35-54.
    In this paper a connection between intentionality, intensionality, language and emotion will be drawn up through a demonstration of an intimate relationship between the intentionality of emotion and intensionality in language. What will be shown is that the intentionality of emotion can ultimately be traced to the intensionality of emotional contexts. For this purpose, emotive predicates will be categorized in terms of their intensional behavior and regularities. They will then be brought forward for an explication of why and how far (...)
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  16. Tomoko I. Sakita (2013). Discourse Markers as Stance Markers: Well in Stance Alignment in Conversational Interaction. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):81-116.
    Stance is inherent in conversational interaction and is interactional in nature. When speakers take a stance, they pay attention to both prior stances and stance relations, as well as to the anticipated consequences of their stancetaking. They manage stance relations as a way of dealing with the “sociocognitive relations” of intersubjectivity (Du Bois 2007). Using the dialogic framework proposed by Du Bois, this paper shows that the discourse marker Well in American English works as a resource for the management of (...)
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  17. Robert E. Sanders, Yaxin Wu & Joseph A. Bonito (2013). The Calculability of Communicative Intentions Through Pragmatic Reasoning. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):1-34.
    We provide conceptual and empirical support for the core tenet in pragmatic theory that speakers make their communicative intention about the pragmatic meaning of their utterances recognizable to hearers. First, we attribute skepticism about this tenet to conceptualizing communicative intentions as private cognitive states that hearers cannot reliably discern. We show it is more parsimonious to conceptualize communicative intention as arising from communally shared knowledge of discursive means to ends that is the basis for pragmatic reasoning about utterance meaning by (...)
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  18. Naoko Taguchi, Shuai Li & Yan Liu (2013). Comprehension of Conversational Implicature in L2 Chinese. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):139-157.
    This study examined the ability to comprehend conventional and non-conventional implicatures, and the effect of proficiency and learning context (foreign language learners vs. heritage learners) on comprehension of implicature in L2 Chinese. Participants were three groups of college students of Chinese: elementary-level foreign language learners ( n =21), advanced-level foreign language learners ( n =25), and advanced-level heritage learners ( n =25). They completed a 36-item computer-delivered listening test measuring their ability to comprehend three types of implicature: conventional indirect refusals, (...)
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  19. Meng-Ju Tsai (2013). Rethinking Communicative Competence for Typical Speakers: An Integrated Approach to its Nature and Assessment. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):158-177.
    The concept of communicative competence has been studied widely for over 40 years in several fields, including linguistics, psychology, and speech communication. Different definitions of communicative competence and measurement of communicative competence exist in these fields. A clear approach to communicative competence for typical speaking individuals and its measurement of communicative competence is unclear. This paper aims to: (1) review four main approaches to communicative competence and highlight strengths and weaknesses of each approach; (2) develop an integrated approach to communicative (...)
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  20. Sandra Williams & Richard Power (2013). Hedging and Rounding in Numerical Expressions. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):193-223.
    Previous accounts of hedges assume that they cause language to become vague or fuzzy (Lakoff 1973); however, hedges can actually sharpen numerical concepts by giving explicit information about approximation, especially where bare numbers appear misleadingly round or precise. They can also tell hearers about the direction of approximation (greater or less than). This article provides a first empirical account of interactions between hedging and rounding in numerical expressions. We demonstrate that hedges occur more commonly with round numbers than with non-round (...)
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