Reachability is harder for directed than for undirected finite graphs

Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):113-150 (1990)
Although it is known that reachability in undirected finite graphs can be expressed by an existential monadic second-order sentence, our main result is that this is not the case for directed finite graphs (even in the presence of certain "built-in" relations, such as the successor relation). The proof makes use of Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games, along with probabilistic arguments. However, we show that for directed finite graphs with degree at most k, reachability is expressible by an existential monadic second-order sentence
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DOI 10.2307/2274958
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Thomas Schwentick (1996). On Winning Ehrenfeucht Games and Monadic NP. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 79 (1):61-92.

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