Typology reconsidered: Two doctrines on the history of evolutionary biology [Book Review]

Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):153-177 (1998)
Abstract
Recent historiography of 19th century biology supports the revision of two traditional doctrines about the history of biology. First, the most important and widespread biological debate around the time of Darwin was not evolution versus creation, but biological functionalism versus structuralism. Second, the idealist and typological structuralist theories of the time were not particularly anti-evolutionary. Typological theories provided argumentation and evidence that was crucial to the refutation of Natural Theological creationism. The contrast between functionalist and structuralist approaches to biology continues today, and the historical misunderstanding of 19th century typological biology may be one of its effects. This historical case can shed light on current controversies regarding the relevance of developmental biology to evolution.
Keywords typology  essentialism  idealism  adaptationism  morphology  Richard Owen
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Wolfram Hinzen (2012). Human Nature and Grammar. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 70:53-82.
Jack Powers (2013). Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):714-723.
Mark F. Riegner (2013). Ancestor of the New Archetypal Biology: Goethe's Dynamic Typology as a Model for Contemporary Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):735-744.
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