Arguing from Facts to Duties

[EN] One of the most controversial issues about deontic and ethical matters is whether statements of duty or right can be inferred from statements of fact, and conversely. Most analytical philosophers have given a negative answer. We hold that there is a valid logical inferential rule from duties or permissions to facts, and conversely. Many duties and permissions arise only because certain facts exist. The reason is that a general principle of morals and law lays down that, if we act wrongly, at least, we have to act so as to implement the lesser evil. The usual possible-world semantics for deontic logic has to be dropped along with any separatism between norms and facts
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