Journal of Religious Ethics 11 (2):240 - 263 (1983)
|Abstract||Islamic mysticism has its roots in the primordial covenant relationship described in Qur'ān 7: 172. The earliest phase of Sufism, the ascetical tradition, focuses on the presence of evil within man and the world. The later development of the science of opposites by ecstatic mystics results in an elitist ethical system whose ground is the mystical relationship, not the sharī'ah. The seeds of this development can be found in the classical Ash'arite synthesis. Finally, Ibn Arabī's relentlessly deterministic elaboration of waḥdat al-wujūd, the unity of Being, reduces man's individual moral choice to an illusion, except insofar as man realizes himself to be one with God.|
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