An Extension of Classical Transformational Grammar

0. Introductory remarks. I assume that every serious theory of language must give some explicit account of the relationship between expressions in the language described and expressions in some interpreted language which spells out the semantics of the language.1 Let's call this relationship the translation relation. Theories differ as to how this relation is specified. In the Aspects theory of syntax, taken together with a Katz-Postal view of "semantic rules" (Chomsky 1965; Katz and Postal, 1964), it was assumed that the relation was defined on deep structures. Serious problems led to modifications of this view in several directions ('generative' and 'interpretive' semantics). Chomsky's latest papers (1976, 1975a: Ch. 3) assume that a modified 'intermediate structure' (surface structure with traces) is transformed by rules of interpretation to a level of representation called 'logical form' (which is input to further rules). Common to all of these approaches is the assumption that the translation rules are defined initially on syntactic structures of one sort or another (sometimes from several 'levels' at once). Let us call this assumption the configurational hypothesis: the translation rules all have the form: [183].
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Ewan Klein & Ivan A. Sag (1985). Type-Driven Translation. Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (2):163 - 201.

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