The ontology of artifacts

Philosophical Explorations 7 (2):99 – 111 (2004)
Beginning with Aristotle, philosophers have taken artifacts to be ontologically deficient. This paper proposes a theory of artifacts, according to which artifacts are ontologically on a par with other material objects. I formulate a nonreductive theory that regards artifacts as constituted by - but not identical to - aggregates of particles. After setting out the theory, I rebut a number of arguments that disparage the ontological status of artifacts.
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DOI 10.1080/13869790410001694462
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Wybo Houkes & Anthonie Meijers (2006). The Ontology of Artefacts: The Hard Problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):118-131.
Krist Vaesen (2011). The Functional Bias of the Dual Nature of Technical Artefacts Program. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (1):190-197.

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