Constructive Context

One of the most familiar uses of the Russell paradox, or, at least, of the idea underlying it, is in proving Cantor's theorem that the cardinality of any set is strictly less than that of its power set. The other method of proving Cantor's theorem — employed by Cantor himself in showing that the set of real numbers is uncountable — is that of diagonalization. Typically, diagonalization arguments are used to show that function spaces are "large" in a suitable sense. Classically, these two methods are equivalent. But constructively they are not: while the argument for Russell's paradox is perfectly constructive, (i.e., employs intuitionistically acceptable principles of logic) the method of diagonalization fails to be so. I describe the ways in which these two methods..
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