Chemistry in the French tradition of philosophy of science: Duhem, Meyerson, Metzger and Bachelard

Abstract
At first glance twentieth-century philosophy of science seems virtually to ignore chemistry. However this paper argues that a focus on chemistry helped shape the French philosophical reflections about the aims and foundations of scientific methods. Despite patent philosophical disagreements between Duhem, Meyerson, Metzger and Bachelard it is possible to identify the continuity of a tradition that is rooted in their common interest for chemistry. Two distinctive features of the French tradition originated in the attention to what was going on in chemistry.French philosophers of science, in stark contrast with analytic philosophers, considered history of science as the necessary basis for understanding how the human intellect or the scientific spirit tries to grasp the world. This constant reference to historical data was prompted by a fierce controversy about the chemical revolution, which brought the issue of the nature of scientific changes centre stage.A second striking—albeit largely unnoticed—feature of the French tradition is that matter theories are a favourite subject with which to characterize the ways of science. Duhem, Meyerson, Metzger and Bachelard developed most of their views about the methods and aims of science through a discussion of matter theories. Just as the concern with history was prompted by a controversy between chemists, the focus on matter was triggered by a scientific controversy about atomism in the late nineteenth-century.Keywords: France; Epistemology; Chemistry; Revolution; Atomism; Realism
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References found in this work BETA
Mario Biagioli (1988). Meyerson: Science and the “Irrational”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (1):5-42.
Gary Cutting (1987). Gaston Bachelard's Philosophy of Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 2 (1):55 – 71.
Stephen W. Gaukroger (1976). Bachelard and the Problem of Epistemological Analysis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 7 (3):189-244.

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Citations of this work BETA
Oscar Moro Abadía (2010). Connecting Historiographical Traditions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):105-108.
Similar books and articles
Roger Ariew & Peter Barker (1986). Duhem on Maxwell: A Case-Study in the Interrelations of History of Science and Philosophy of Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:145 - 156.
Jean François Perraudin (2008). A Non-Bergsonian Bachelard. Continental Philosophy Review 41 (4):463-479.
Kenneth A. Bryson, Emile Meyerson. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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