Graduate studies at Western
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):371-380 (1997)
|Abstract||Are there sex differences in pain? For experimentally delivered somatic stimuli, females have lower thresholds, greater ability to discriminate, higher pain ratings, and less tolerance of noxious stimuli than males. These differences, however, are small, exist only for certain forms of stimulation and are affected by many situational variables such as presence of disease, experimental setting, and even nutritive status. For endogenous pains, women report more multiple pains in more body regions than men. With no obvious underlying rationale, some painful diseases are more prevalent among females, others among males and, for many diseases, symptoms differ between females and males. Sex differences in attitudes exist that affect not only reporting, coping, and responses to treatment, but also measurement and treatment. So many variables are operative, however, that the most striking feature of sex differences in reported pain experience is the apparent overall lack of them. On the other hand, deduction from known biological sex differences suggests that these are powerful sex differences in the operation of pain mechanisms. First, the vaginal canal provides an additional route in women for internal trauma and invasion by pathological agents that puts them at greater risk for developing hyperalgesia in multiple body regions. Second, sex differences in temporal patterns are likely to give rise to sex differences in how pain is and stimuli are interpreted, a situation that could lead to a greater variability and wider range of pains without obvious peripheral pathology among females. Third, sex differences in the actions of sex hormones suggest pain-relevant differences in the operation of many neuroactive agents, opiate and nonopiate systems, nerve growth factor, and the sympathetic system. Thus, while inductive analysis of existing data demonstrate more similarities than differences in pain experience between females and males, deductive analysis suggests important operational sex differences in its production|
|Keywords||[gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA) female male nerve growth factor neuroactive peptides sex hormones sympathetic nervous system|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Peggy DesAutels (2010). Sex Differences and Neuroethics. Philosophical Psychology 23 (1):95-111.
Gary B. Rollman (1997). Sex Differences in Pain Do Exist: The Role of Biological and Psychosocial Factors. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):464-465.
Alice H. Eagly & Wendy Wood (1999). The Origins of Aggression Sex Differences: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):223-224.
K. Gijsbers & C. A. Niven (1997). Psychobiological Sex Differences in Pain: Psychological as Much as Biological. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):449-449.
Ron Kupers (1997). Sex Differences in Pain: And Now for Something Completely Different. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):455-456.
Todd K. Shackelford, Gregory J. LeBlanc, Richard L. Michalski & Viviana A. Weekes (2000). Analyses of Mating Differences Within-Sex and Between-Sex Are Complementary, Not Competing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):621-621.
Myra J. Hird (2004). Sex, Gender, and Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
Wendy F. Sternberg (1997). Sex Differences in Descending Pain Modulatory Pathways May Clarify Sex Differences in Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):466-467.
Martin Voracek & Todd K. Shackelford (2002). An Evolutionary Theory of Pain Must Consider Sex Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):474-475.
Edmund Keogh & Anita Holdcroft (2002). Sex Differences in Pain: Evolutionary Links to Facial Pain Expression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):465-465.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads8 ( #131,816 of 739,345 )
Recent downloads (6 months)0
How can I increase my downloads?