How is a species kept together?

Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):181-196 (1995)
Abstract
Over the decades, there has been substantial empirical evidence showing that the unity of species cannot be maintained by gene flow. The biological species concept is inconclusive on this point. The suggestion is made that the unity of species is maintained rather by selection constantly spreading new alleles throughout the species, or bygene circulation. There is a lack in conceptual distinction between gene flow and gene circulation which lies at the heart of the problem. The concept of gene circulation also sheds some new light on the problem of typology and on such a broad concept as evolution. A new species definition is proposed.
Keywords Biological species concept  gene flow  gene circulation  Ernst Mayr  stalemates  typology  evolution
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