Two examples of decision support in the law

Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):303-321 (1999)
There are several systems which provide computer support to legal decisions. Perhaps the most significant ones, besides various computerised systems for administration, are information retrieval systems that locate statutes and documents. Other research projects, however, deal with legislation and adjudication, making it possible to use information techniques in making legal decisions. I wish to describe two decision-support programs and to link them to some theoretical findings of my former researches. What connects those programs is that they give some new information for decisions on the basis of previous similar legal cases; both describe cases with the help of criteria and use diverse artificial intelligence methods for different types or criteria. The first of the two programs aims to support decisions of insurance specialists by assessing the measure of the compensation for immaterial damage. The result is given by the combination of a neural network, based upon previous judicial cases, and an expert system. The neural network gives the first assessment for the sum of compensation while the expert system refines the network's output. The other program can be used by judges and lawyers in the course of preparing a decision. Studying cases of road accidents, we find that fuzzy logic methods can help to approximate decisions actually given by judges. In this way, the process of decision making by courts and lawyers receives an additional piece of information, obtained by comparing the seriousness of the actual case with that of previous cases.
Keywords decision support  expert system  fuzzy logic  fuzzy ranking method  insurance  neural network  traffic cases
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