David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (2):156-176 (2003)
In autonomous action the agent herself directs and governs the action. But what is it for the agent herself to direct and to govern? One theme in a series of articles by Harry G. Frankfurt is that we can make progress in answering this question by appeal to higher-order conative attitudes. Frankfurt's original version of this idea is that in acting of one's own free will, one is not acting simply because one desires so to act. Rather, it is also true that this desire motivates one's action because one desires that this desire motivate one's action. This latter desire about the motivational role of one's desire is a second-order desire. It is, in particular, what Frankfurt calls a second-order “volition.” And, according to Frankfurt's original proposal, acting of one's own free will involves in this way such second-order, and sometimes yet higher order, volitions
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Andrea Westlund (2009). Rethinking Relational Autonomy. Hypatia 24 (4):26 - 49.
J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby (2010). Ambivalence. Philosophical Explorations 13 (1):23 – 34.
Jennifer M. Morton (2013). Deliberating for Our Far Future Selves. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (4):809-828.
Christian Miller (2013). Identifying with Our Desires. Theoria 79 (2):127-154.
Ben Colburn (2011). Autonomy and Adaptive Preferences. Utilitas 23 (1):52-71.
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