Natural selection

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2008)
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provided the first, and only, causal-mechanistic account of the existence of adaptations in nature. As such, it provided the first, and only, scientific alternative to the “argument from design”. That alone would account for its philosophical significance. But the theory also raises other philosophical questions not encountered in the study of the theories of physics. Unfortunately the concept of natural selection is intimately intertwined with the other basic concepts of evolutionary theory—such as the concepts of fitness and adaptation —that are themselves philosophically controversial. Fortunately we can make considerable headway in getting clear on natural selection without solving all of those outstanding problems
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Kent A. Peacock (2011). The Three Faces of Ecological Fitness. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):99-105.
Thomas A. C. Reydon & Markus Scholz (2015). Searching for Darwinism in Generalized Darwinism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (3):561-589.

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