Monotone reducibility and the family of infinite sets

Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (3):774-782 (1984)
Abstract
Let A and B be subsets of the space 2 N of sets of natural numbers. A is said to be Wadge reducible to B if there is a continuous map Φ from 2 N into 2 N such that A = Φ -1 (B); A is said to be monotone reducible to B if in addition the map Φ is monotone, that is, $a \subset b$ implies $\Phi (a) \subset \Phi(b)$ . The set A is said to be monotone if a ∈ A and $a \subset b$ imply b ∈ A. For monotone sets, it is shown that, as for Wadge reducibility, sets low in the arithmetical hierarchy are nicely ordered. The ▵ 0 1 sets are all reducible to the (Σ 0 1 but not ▵ 0 1 ) sets, which are in turn all reducible to the strictly ▵ 0 2 sets, which are all in turn reducible to the strictly Σ 0 2 sets. In addition, the nontrivial Σ 0 n sets all have the same degree for n ≤ 2. For Wadge reducibility, these results extend throughout the Borel hierarchy. In contrast, we give two natural strictly Π 0 2 monotone sets which have different monotone degrees. We show that every Σ 0 2 monotone set is actually Σ 0 2 positive. We also consider reducibility for subsets of the space of compact subsets of 2 N . This leads to the result that the finitely iterated Cantor-Bendixson derivative D n is a Borel map of class exactly 2n, which answers a question of Kuratowski
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