David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):1-30 (2010)
The different meanings of “courage” in The Analects were expressed in Confucius’ remark on Zilu’s bravery. The typological analysis of courage in Mencius and Xunzi focused on the shaping of the personalities of brave persons. “Great courage” and “superior courage”, as the virtues of “great men” or “ shi junzi 士君子 (intellectuals with noble characters)”, exhibit not only the uprightness of the “internal sagacity”, but also the rich implications of the “external kingship”. The prototype of these brave persons could be said to be between Zengzi’s courage and King Wen’s courage. The discussion entered a new stage of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties, when admiration for “Yanzi’s great valor” became the key of various arguments. The order of “the three cardinal virtues” was also discussed because it concerned the relationship between “finished virtue” and “novice virtue”; hence, the virtue of courage became internalized as an essence of the internal virtuous life. At the turn of the 20 th century, when China was trembling under the threat of foreign powers, intellectuals remodeled the tradition of courage by redefining “Confucius’ great valor”, as Liang Qichao did in representative fashion in his book Chinese Bushido . Hu Shi’s Lun Ru 论儒 (On Ru ) was no more than a repetition of Liang’s opinion. In the theoretical structures of the modern Confucians, courage is hardly given a place. As one of the three cardinal virtues, bravery is but a concept. In a contemporary society where heroes and sages exist only in history books, do we need to talk about courage? How should it be discussed? These are questions which deserve our consideration.
|Keywords||yong Zilu’s bravery Zengzi’s bravery Yanzi’s great valor Confucius’ great valor|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Alasdair C. MacIntyre (2007). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. University of Notre Dame Press.
Charles Taylor (1992). The Ethics of Authenticity. Harvard University Press.
Paul Tillich (2000/1977). The Courage to Be. Yale University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio & Fred O. Walumbwa (2011). Relationships Between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):555-578.
Richard Avramenko (2011). Courage: The Politics of Life and Limb. University of Notre Dame Press.
Jonathan J. Sanford (2010). Are You Man Enough? Aristotle and Courage. International Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):431-445.
Xinyan Jiang (2007). Courage and Self-Control. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:59-64.
Per Bauhn (2003). The Value of Courage. Nordic Academic Press.
Linda R. Rabieh (2006). Plato and the Virtue of Courage. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Per Bauhn (2007). Two Concepts of Courage. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:65-68.
Earl E. Shelp (1983). Courage and Tragedy in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (4):417-429.
Michael J. Naughton & Jeffrey R. Cornwall (2006). The Virtue of Courage in Entrepreneurship. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):69-93.
Elizabeth Pybus (1991). Human Goodness: Generosity and Courage. Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Added to index2010-02-15
Total downloads30 ( #85,224 of 1,696,808 )
Recent downloads (6 months)6 ( #96,298 of 1,696,808 )
How can I increase my downloads?