Distributive justice and co-operation in a world of humans and non-humans: A contractarian argument for drawing non-humans into the sphere of justice
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Res Publica 15 (1):67-84 (2009)
Various arguments have been provided for drawing non-humans such as animals and artificial agents into the sphere of moral consideration. In this paper, I argue for a shift from an ontological to a social-philosophical approach: instead of asking what an entity is, we should try to conceptually grasp the quasi-social dimension of relations between non-humans and humans. This allows me to reconsider the problem of justice, in particular distributive justice . Engaging with the work of Rawls, I show that an expansion of the contractarian framework to non-humans causes an important problem for liberalism, but can be justified by a contractarian argument. Responding to Bell’s and Nussbaum’s comments on Rawls, I argue that we can justify drawing non-humans into the sphere of distributive justice by relying on the notion of a co-operative scheme. I discuss what co-operation between humans and non-humans can mean and the extent to which it depends on properties. I conclude that we need to imagine principles of ecological and technological distributive justice.
|Keywords||Distributive justice Contractarianism Animals Artificial agents Rawls Liberalism Imagination|
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References found in this work BETA
John Rawls (1993). Political Liberalism. Columbia University Press.
John Rawls (1999). The Law of Peoples. Harvard University Press.
John Rawls (2001). Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Harvard University Press.
Bruno Latour (1993). We Have Never Been Modern. Harvard University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Robert Garner (2012). Rawls, Animals and Justice: New Literature, Same Response. [REVIEW] Res Publica 18 (2):159-172.
Julia Tanner (2013). Contractarianism and Secondary Direct Moral Standing for Marginal Humans and Animals. Res Publica 19 (2):1-16.
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