Filosofia e Mecânica: Matéria inerte e força activa

Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 61 (1):247 - 280 (2005)
Abstract
A Mecânica clássica parte da lei de inércia e usa um conceito de força que é consequência lógica da lei (§ 2-3). Acontece porém que nem a lei de inércia tem fundamento experimental (§ 1) nem o conceito de força tem referente nos fenómenos (§ 4). O estudo da função da lei e da força nas teorias mecânicas veio mostrar que a lei de inércia expressa apenas um movimento unidade e a força desvios à unidade (§ 5). Segue-se que a ciência praticava uma metodologia, mas expressava-se como possuindo um conhecimento dos meandros da natureza. Isto coloca pelo menos uma questão à filosofia, porquanto a caracterização da ciência pela epistemologia usual se mostra inadequada para a mecânica. /// The classical mechanics assumes the law of inertia and uses a concept of force that is a logical consequence of the law (§ 2-3). As a matter of fact the law of inertia has no experimental basis (§ 1) and beyond that the concept of force does not correspond to anything in the mechanical phenomena (§ 4). The study of the structure of the mechanical theories has shown that the law of inertia expresses only a reference motion and the force represents deflections from that motion (§ 5). Therefore it can be concluded that even though science seems to have a far reaching knowledge of nature, it has indeed only practiced a methodology. This poses a problem for the philosophy insofar as it makes the usual epistemological framework inadequate to characterize mechanics.
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