David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Ethics, Place and Environment 13 (1):75 – 96 (2010)
Here it is shown that 'vacant nature' is deployed as sign in Anglo-American landscape representation of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries to support a Cartesian imaginary of spatial extension. The referent of this imaginary is variously denoted as 'America' (John Locke), the 'north west' (Jefferson), the 'wilderness' (Ralph Waldo Emerson), and the 'frontier' (Frederick Jackson Turner) but throughout it is essentially the same 'vacant' landscape; its function is to produce a site and space of appearance for an imperial self, an isolate pursuing self-extension through commodity production and consumption. This spatial representation—the predecessor of the abstract space of shopping malls, interstates, commercial advertising, global markets, office buildings, and suburbs—is contrasted with 'place,' a space shaped by topography, collective memory, and ecological constraint
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Lawrence Buell (2003). Emerson. Harvard University Press.
Edmund Burke (2008). A Philosophical Enquiry Into the Sublime and Beautiful. Routledge Classics.
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M. B. Foster (1935). Christian Theology and Modern Science of Nature (I.). Mind 44 (176):439-466.
M. B. Foster (1936). Christian Theology and Modern Science of Nature (II.). Mind 45 (177):1-27.
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