David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):343-360 (2009)
This paper considers the importance of the body for self-esteem, communication, and emotional expression and experience, through the reflections of those who live with various neurological impairments of movement and sensation; sensory deafferentation, spinal cord injury and Möbius Syndrome (the congenital absence of facial expression). People with severe sensory loss, who require conscious attention and visual feedback for movement, describe the imperative to use the same strategies to reacquire gesture, to appear normal and have embodied expression. Those paralysed after spinal cord injury struggle to have others see them as people rather than as people in wheelchairs and have been active in the disability movement, distinguishing between their medical impairment and the social induced disability others project onto them. Lastly those with Möbius reveal the importance of the face for emotional expression and communication and indeed for emotional experience itself. All these examples explore the crucial role of the body as agent for social and personal expression and self-esteem.
|Keywords||Embodiment Neurological impairment Sensory deafferentation Spinal cord injury Möbius syndrome Emotional expression and experience|
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References found in this work BETA
Jonathan Cole & Henrietta Spalding (2008). The Invisible Smile: Living Without Facial Expression. OUP Oxford.
David McNeill (2005). Gesture and Thought. University of Chicago Press.
A. L. Wilkes, L. S. Vygotsky, E. Hanfmann & G. Vakar (1964). Thought and Language. Philosophical Quarterly 14 (55):178.
Citations of this work BETA
Nivedita Gangopadhyay (2011). The Extended Mind: Born to Be Wild? A Lesson From Action-Understanding. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):377-397.
Joel Krueger (2009). Empathy and the Extended Mind. Zygon 44 (3):675-698.
Harry Farmer & Manos Tsakiris (2012). The Bodily Social Self: A Link Between Phenomenal and Narrative Selfhood. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):125-144.
Achim Stephan, Sven Walter & Wendy Wilutzky (2013). Emotions Beyond Brain and Body. Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-17.
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