Why people see things that are not there: A novel perception and attention deficit model for recurrent complex visual hallucinations
Graduate studies at Western
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):737-757 (2005)
|Abstract||As many as two million people in the United Kingdom repeatedly see people, animals, and objects that have no objective reality. Hallucinations on the border of sleep, dementing illnesses, delirium, eye disease, and schizophrenia account for 90% of these. The remainder have rarer disorders. We review existing models of recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH) in the awake person, including cortical irritation, cortical hyperexcitability and cortical release, top-down activation, misperception, dream intrusion, and interactive models. We provide evidence that these can neither fully account for the phenomenology of RCVH, nor for variations in the frequency of RCVH in different disorders. We propose a novel Perception and Attention Deficit (PAD) model for RCVH. A combination of impaired attentional binding and poor sensory activation of a correct proto-object, in conjunction with a relatively intact scene representation, bias perception to allow the intrusion of a hallucinatory proto-object into a scene perception. Incorporation of this image into a context-specific hallucinatory scene representation accounts for repetitive hallucinations. We suggest that these impairments are underpinned by disturbances in a lateral frontal cortex–ventral visual stream system. We show how the frequency of RCVH in different diseases is related to the coexistence of attentional and visual perceptual impairments; how attentional and perceptual processes can account for their phenomenology; and that diseases and other states with high rates of RCVH have cholinergic dysfunction in both frontal cortex and the ventral visual stream. Several tests of the model are indicated, together with a number of treatment options that it generates. Key Words: Blindness; Charles Bonnet; cholinergic; cortical release; delirium; dementia; dream intrusion; hallucination; Perception and Attention Deficit (PAD) model; schizophrenia.|
|Keywords||Blindness Charles Bonnet cholinergic cortical release delirium dementia dream intrusion hallucination Perception and Attention Deficit (PAD) model schizophrenia|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Johanna C. Badcock & Murray T. Maybery (2005). Common or Distinct Deficits for Auditory and Visual Hallucinations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):757-758.
Glenda Halliday (2005). The Emergence of Proto-Objects in Complex Visual Hallucinations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):767-768.
Kevin M. Spencer & Robert W. McCarley (2005). Visual Hallucinations, Attention, and Neural Circuitry: Perspectives From Schizophrenia Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):774-774.
J. F. Morrison & AS David (2005). Now You See It, Now You Don't: More Data at the Cognitive Level Needed Before the PAD Model Can Be Accepted. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):770-+.
Duje Tadin, Peiyan Wong, Michael W. Mebane, Michael J. Berkowitz, Hollister Trott & Sohee Park (2005). Believing is Seeing in Schizophrenia: The Role of Top-Down Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):775-775.
Brendan T. Carroll & Tressa D. Carroll (2005). Catatonia is the Rosetta Stone of Psychosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):759-760.
Miguel Castelo-Branco (2005). Neural Correlates of Visual Hallucinatory Phenomena: The Role of Attention. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):760-761.
Alexei V. Samsonovich (2005). Hallucinating Objects Versus Hallucinating Subjects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):772-773.
Igor Dolgov & Michael K. McBeath (2005). A Signal-Detection-Theory Representation of Normal and Hallucinatory Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):761-762.
Daniel Collerton, Elaine Perry & Ian McKeith (2005). Still PADing Along: Perception and Attention Remain Key Factors in Understanding Complex Visual Hallucinations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):776-794.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads26 ( #53,718 of 740,467 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #61,957 of 740,467 )
How can I increase my downloads?