Unsafe knowledge

Synthese 146 (3):395 - 404 (2005)
Ernest Sosa has argued that if someone knows that p, then his belief that p is “safe”. and Timothy Williamson has agreed. In this paper I argue that safety, as defined by Sosa, is not a necessary condition on knowledge – that we can have unsafe knowledge. I present Sosa’s definition of safety and a counterexample to it as a necessary condition on knowledge. I also argue that Sosa’s most recent refinements to the notion of safety don’t help him to avoid the counterexample. I consider three replies on behalf of the defender of safety, and find them all wanting. Finally, I offer a tentative diagnosis of my counterexample.
Keywords Philosophy   Philosophy   Epistemology   Logic   Metaphysics   Philosophy of Language
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DOI 10.2307/20118637
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Citations of this work BETA
Tomas Bogardus (2013). Knowledge Under Threat. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):289-313.
Peter Baumann (2014). No Luck With Knowledge? On a Dogma of Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (3):523-551.

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Similar books and articles
Dani Rabinowitz, The Safety Condition for Knowledge. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Jessica Brown (2009). Review: Sosa on Scepticism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 143 (3):397 - 405.
Jessica Brown (2009). Sosa on Scepticism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 143 (3):397--405.
Christoph Kelp (2009). Knowledge and Safety. Journal of Philosophical Research 34:21-31.
Tomas Bogardus (2013). Knowledge Under Threat. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):289-313.

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