David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy (Conference Proceedings) (1998)
Phenomenology and logical positivism both subscribed to an empirical-verifiability criterion of mental or linguistic meaning. The acceptance of this criterion confronted them with the same problem: how to understand the Other as a subject with his own experience, if the existence and nature of the Other's experiences cannot be verified. Husserl tackled this problem in the Cartesian Meditations, but he could not reconcile the verifiability criterion with understanding the Other's feelings and sensations. Carnap's solution was to embrace behaviorism and eliminate the idea of private sensations, but behaviorism has well-known difficulties. Heidegger broke this impasse by suggesting that each person's being included being-with, an innate capacity for understanding the Other. To be human is to be "hard-wired" to make sense of the Other without having to verify the Other's private sensations. I suggest that being-with emerged from an evolutionary imperative for conspecific animals to recognize each other and to coordinate their activities. Wittgenstein also rejected the verifiability criterion. He theorized that the meaning of a term is its usage and that terms about private sensations were meaningful because they have functions in our language-games. For example, "I'm in pain," like a cry of pain, functions to get the attention of others and motivate others to help. Wittgenstein's theory shows how Dasein's being-with includes "primitive" adaptive behavior such as cries, smiles, and threatening or playful gesture. As Dasein is acculturated, these behaviors are partially superseded by functionally equivalent linguistic expressions.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Leslie MacAvoy (2005). Meaning, Categories and Subjectivity in the Early Heidegger. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (1):21-35.
Roxana Baiasu (2009). Puzzles of Discourse in Being and Time : Minding Gaps in Understanding. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (5):681-706.
David Bain (2004). Private Languages and Private Theorists. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (216):427 - 434.
Peter Pagin (2000). Sensation Terms. Dialectica 54 (3):177-99.
Søren Overgaard (2006). The Problem of Other Minds: Wittgenstein's Phenomenological Perspective. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):53-73.
Bryan G. Norton (1977). On the Metatheoretical Nature of Carnap's Philosophy. Philosophy of Science 44 (1):65-85.
Sebastian Luft (2005). Husserl's Concept of the 'Transcendental Person': Another Look at the Husserl-Heidegger Relationship. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 13 (2):141 – 177.
Dale Jacquette (1994). Wittgenstein on Private Language and Privat Mental Objects. Wittgenstein-Studien 1 (1).
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads94 ( #19,159 of 1,696,506 )
Recent downloads (6 months)27 ( #15,810 of 1,696,506 )
How can I increase my downloads?