From Darwin to Watson (and Cognitivism) and Back Again: The Principle of Animal-Environment Mutuality
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):179 - 195 (2004)
Modern cognitive psychology presents itself as the revolutionary alternative to behaviorism, yet there are blatant continuities between modern cognitivism and the mechanistic kind of behaviorism that cognitivists have in mind, such as their commitment to methodological behaviorism, the stimulus–response schema, and the hypothetico-deductive method. Both mechanistic behaviorism and cognitive behaviorism remain trapped within the dualisms created by the traditional ontology of physical science—dualisms that, one way or another, exclude us from the "physical world." Darwinian theory, however, put us back into nature. The Darwinian emphasis upon the mutuality of animal and environment was further developed by, among others, James, Dewey, and Mead. Although their functionalist approach to psychology was overtaken by Watson's behaviorism, the principle of animal–environment dualism continued to figure (though somewhat inconsistently) within the work of Skinner and Gibson. For the clearest insights into the mutuality of organism and environment we need to set the clock back quite a few years and return to the work of Darwin and the early functionalist psychologists.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
B. F. Skinner (1977). Why I Am Not a Cognitive Psychologist. Behaviorism 5 (2):1-10.
Richard F. Kitchener (1977). Behavior and Behaviorism. Behaviorism 5:11-68.
P. Harzem (2004). Behaviorism for New Psychology: What Was Wrong with Behaviorism and What is Wrong with It Now. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):5-12.
John C. Malone Jr & Natalie M. Cruchon (2001). Radical Behaviorism and the Rest of Psychology: A Review/Précis of Skinner's "About Behaviorism". Behavior and Philosophy 29:31 - 57.
Larry Hauser, Behaviorism. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Alan Costall (ed.) (1987). Cognitive Psychology In Question. St Martin's Press.
Richard F. Kitchener (2004). Bertrand Russell's Flirtation with Behaviorism. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):273 - 291.
Vicki L. Lee (1988). Beyond Behaviorism. L. Erlbaum Associates.
Raymond J. Nelson (1975). Behaviorism, Finite Automata, and Stimulus-Response Theory. Theory and Decision 6 (August):249-67.
Thomas Natsoulas (1983). Perhaps the Most Difficult Problem Faced by Behaviorism. Behaviorism 11 (April):1-26.
Robert H. Wozniak (ed.) (1884/1993). Theoretical Roots of Early Behaviourism: Functionalism, the Critique of Introspection, and the Nature and Evolution of Consciousness. Routledge/Thoemmes Press.
Mecca Chiesa (1994). Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science. Authors Cooperative.
Ron Amundson (1983). E. C. Tolman and the Intervening Variable: A Study in the Epistemological History of Psychology. Philosophy of Science 50 (2):268-282.
George Graham (1982). Spartans and Behaviorists. Behaviorism 10:137-149.
Terry L. Smith (1988). Neo-Skinnerian Psychology: A Non-Radical Behaviorism. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:143 - 148.
Added to index2011-05-29
Total downloads9 ( #152,927 of 1,096,806 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #273,068 of 1,096,806 )
How can I increase my downloads?