Ordem, Harmonia e Perfeição do Universo na Filosofia da Natureza de Santo Agostinho

Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 64 (1):195 - 207 (2008)
Abstract
Partindo do princípio judaico-cristão de que Deus, Ser supremo, criou todas as coisas a partir do nada mediante um acto livre de amor (creatio ex nihilo), o artigo mostra como Santo Agostinho defende que no universo físico, criado e governado por Deus, não há espaço para a desordem ou imperfeição (o mal), mas que a natureza é perfeitamente ordenada e harmoniosa, não havendo, portanto, senão o bem. Desta forma, mostra-se de que modo para Santo Agostinho, existir, ser e Bem são sinónimos. Por outro lado, mostra-se também que o mal físico, ou a imperfeição no universo, não passa de uma ausência ou privação do Bem, que acontece não como ser, mas como não-ser. /// Starting with the Judeo-Christian principle that God, the supreme Being, has created all things from nothing (creatio ex nihilo) by means of a free act of love, the article shows how Saint Augustine defends that in the physical universe, created and governed by God, there is no room for disorderliness or imperfection (evil), but that nature is perfectly ordered and harmonious. Indeed, for Augustine, there exists only the good, so that for him to exist, being and the good are synonymous. On the other hand, the article also shows that physical evil, or the imperfection in the universe, is nothing more than an absence or a privation of the Good, which happens not as being but rather as no-being.
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