Problem Solving, Working Backwards, and Graphic Proof Representation REVIEWS

Teaching Philosophy 23 (2):169-187 (2000)
Abstract
Newell and Simon’s seminal Human Problem Solving (1972) characterized a problem in terms of a goal state, a starting state, and a set of transition rules which define legitimate transitions from one state to another.1 Problem solving thus becomes a process of searching through a set of alternative states (the "problem space") in an effort to find a path leading from starting state to the goal state. The search process can be guided by heuristic principles which function to reduce the problem space by judging some alternatives to be more worthy of exploration than others. This characterization of a problem and the problem solving process fits well the nature of deductive proof construction. Premise(s) and conclusion play the role of starting state and goal state, and valid rules of transformation serve as rules of legitimate transition among states. In fact, Human Problem Solving empirically investigated three particular problem solving tasks, and one of these is proof construction.... in sentential logic using an inferencereplacement rule set. This empirical research identifies several strategies which facilitate problem solving, such as means-ends reasoning, difference reduction, and working backwards from goal toward starting state. As detailed below, these methods have obvious applications to proof construction as taught in logic textbooks. Newell and Simon’s aim was to explain and predict the actual behavior of problem solvers. Beyond this, however, their empirical findings have normative consequences for how problem solvers should behave if they want to be successful. Moreover, these findings can have normative pedagogical consequences for the teaching of proof construction.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
Options
 Save to my reading list
Follow the author(s)
My bibliography
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Revision history Request removal from index
 
Download options
PhilPapers Archive


Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy on self-archival     Papers currently archived: 10,941
External links
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library
References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Similar books and articles
Analytics

Monthly downloads

Added to index

2009-01-28

Total downloads

15 ( #107,531 of 1,100,758 )

Recent downloads (6 months)

2 ( #176,465 of 1,100,758 )

How can I increase my downloads?

My notes
Sign in to use this feature


Discussion
Start a new thread
Order:
There  are no threads in this forum
Nothing in this forum yet.