David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):368-378 (2011)
It is generally assumed that storing predictive relations between two events in memory as bi-directional associations does not require conscious awareness of this relation, whereas the formation of unidirectional associations that capture the direction of the relation does. This study reports a set of experiments demonstrating that unidirectional associations can be formed even when awareness of the relation is actively prevented, if attention is “tuned” to process predictive relations. When participants engaged in predicting targets based on cues in an unrelated task before the actual acquisition phase, unidirectional associations were formed during this acquisition phase even though E1 was presented subliminally. This suggests that although processing the relation between events may often be accompanied by awareness of this relation, awareness is not a prerequisite for the formation of unidirectional associations.
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Citations of this work BETA
Filip Van Opstal, Cristian Buc Calderon, Wim Gevers & Tom Verguts (2011). Setting the Stage Subliminally: Unconscious Context Effects. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1860-1864.
Anouk van der Weiden, Henk Aarts & Kirsten I. Ruys (2011). Prime and Probability: Causal Knowledge Affects Inferential and Predictive Effects on Self-Agency Experiences. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1865-1871.
An K. Raes & Rudi De Raedt (2011). Interoceptive Awareness and Unaware Fear Conditioning: Are Subliminal Conditioning Effects Influenced by the Manipulation of Visceral Self-Perception? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1393-1402.
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