Exploitation in the use of human subjects for medical experimentation: A re-examination of basic issues
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Bioethics 9 (3):259–268 (1995)
Relatively subtle forms of exploitation of human subjects may arise from the inefficiency or incompetence of a researcher, from the existence of a power imbalance between principal and subject, or from the uneven distribution of research risks among various segments of the population. A powerful and knowledgeable person (or institution) may perpetrate the exploitation of an unempowered and ignorant individual even without intending to. There is an ethical burden on the former to protect the interests of the vulnerable. Excessive or insufficient compensation may be exploitative. However, genuine economic imperatives motivating needy volunteers have to be considered. These forms of exploitation should be appreciated in the context of social and cultural factors suggesting that the relationship between researcher and subject cannot properly be appraised as a contractual undertaking. While compliance with pertinent codes and regulations minimises the exploitative potential, they cannot be enforced in a way that does not recognise a society's peculiar characteristics. The experience with some Filipino cultural traits illustrates this point.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Dave Wendler (2000). Informed Consent, Exploitation and Whether It is Possible to Conduct Human Subjects Research Without Either One. Bioethics 14 (4):310–339.
Aamir M. Jafarey (2002). Conflict of Interest Issues in Informed Consent for Research on Human Subjects: A South Asian Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):353-362.
David B. Resnik (2003). Exploitation in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
Paul M. McNeill (1993). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. Cambridge University Press.
Hugh V. McLachlan & J. K. Swales (2001). Exploitation and Commercial Surrogate Motherhood. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 7 (1):8--14.
Allen W. Wood (1995). Exploitation. Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136--158.
Vittorio Bufacchi (2002). The Injustice of Exploitation. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (1):1-15.
Jeremy Snyder (2010). Exploitations and Their Complications: The Necessity of Identifying the Multiple Forms of Exploitation in Pharmaceutical Trials. Bioethics 26 (5):251-258.
Jeremy Snyder (2010). Multiple Forms of Exploitation in International Research: The Need for Multiple Standards of Fairness. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):40-41.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads7 ( #263,482 of 1,696,514 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #343,026 of 1,696,514 )
How can I increase my downloads?