David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Philosophy Compass 2 (2):244–257 (2007)
This is a survey article in which I explore some important recent work on the topic in question, Kant’s formula of the end in itself (or “formula of humanity”). I first provide an overview of the formulation, including what the formula seems roughly to be saying, and what Kant’s main argument for it seems to be. I then call the reader’s attention to a variety of questions one might have about the import of and argument for this formula, alluding to some of the works in which philosophers have recently raised or tried to answer these questions. Then, for the bulk of the paper, I focus my discussion on two issues of contention: the identity of the “end in itself” that the formula refers to, and the relation between the value of the end in itself and the value of other ends. I do not attempt to argue for a particular position of my own regarding these issues. Instead, I explain a number of the more interesting or influential recent attempts to answer these questions, compare these approaches in various ways, draw implications from them, and raise concerns about some of them. I also suggest that an important link connects the question about the identity of the end in itself and the question about the relation between the value of the end in itself in relation to the value of other ends: How one answers these questions commits one to a position on the thorny issue of whether, how, and how fully, autonomy is manifested through empirical (not simply pure) practical reason.
|Keywords||Kantian ethics formula of humanity survey|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Christine M. Korsgaard (1996). The Sources of Normativity. Cambridge University Press.
Christine M. Korsgaard (1996). Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge University Press.
Immanuel Kant (1996). Practical Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
Allen W. Wood (1999). Kant's Ethical Thought. Cambridge University Press.
Barbara Herman (1985). The Practice of Moral Judgment. Journal of Philosophy 82 (8):414-436.
Citations of this work BETA
Adam Cureton (2013). A Contractualist Reading of Kant's Proof of the Formula of Humanity. Kantian Review 18 (3):363-386.
Sven Nyholm (2013). On Kant's Idea of Humanity as an End in Itself. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2).
Similar books and articles
Joshua Glasgow (2007). Kant's Conception of Humanity. Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2):291-308.
Lara Denis (1997). Kant's Ethics and Duties to Oneself. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):321–348.
Adrienne Martin (2006). How to Argue for the Value of Humanity. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (1):96-125.
Japa Pallikkathayil (2010). Deriving Morality From Politics: Rethinking the Formula of Humanity. Ethics 121 (1):116-147.
Ronald Michael Green (2001). What Does It Mean to Use Someone as "a Means Only": Rereading Kant. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (3):247-261.
Richard Dean (2009). The Formula of Humanity as an End in Itself. In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell
Lara Denis (2007). Abortion and Kant's Formula of Universal Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):547-580.
Adrienne M. Martin (2006). How to Argue for the Value of Humanity. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (1):96–125.
William Nelson (2008). Kant's Formula of Humanity. Mind 117 (465):85-106.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads235 ( #10,513 of 1,902,204 )
Recent downloads (6 months)12 ( #59,797 of 1,902,204 )
How can I increase my downloads?