David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):173 - 186 (2004)
Externalism about knowledge commits one to a modest form of contextualism: whether one knows depends (or may depend) on circumstances (context) of which one has no knowledge. Such modest contextualism requires the rejection of the KK Principle (If S knows that P, then S knows that S knows that P) - something most people would want to reject anyway - but it does not require (though it is compatible with) a rejection of closure. Radical contextualism, on the other hand, goes a step farther and relativizes knowledge not just to the circumstances of the knower, but to the circumstances of the person attributing knowledge. I reject this more radical form of contextualism and suggest that it confuses (or that it can, at least, be avoided by carefully distinguishing) the relativity in what S is said to know from the relativity in whether S knows what S is said to know.
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Citations of this work BETA
Christoph Jäger (2004). Skepticism, Information, and Closure: Dretske's Theory of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):187 - 201.
Michael Hughes (2013). Problems for Contrastive Closure: Resolved and Regained. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):577-590.
Nicholas Shackel (2006). Shutting Dretske's Door. Erkenntnis 64 (3):393 - 401.
Johan van Benthem (2006). Epistemic Logic and Epistemology: The State of Their Affairs. Philosophical Studies 128 (1):49 - 76.
Martin Smith (2012). Some Thoughts on the JK-Rule1. Noûs 46 (4):791-802.
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