The symbol and the theory of the life-world: “The transcendences of the life-world and their overcoming by signs and symbols”
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Human Studies 26 (2):141-163 (2003)
This essay presents a phenomenological analysis of the functioning of symbols as elements of the life-world with the purpose of demonstrating the interrelationship of individual and society. On the basis of Alfred Schutz''s theory of the life-world, signs and symbols are viewed as mechanisms by means of which the individual can overcome the transcendences posed by time, space, the world of the Other, and multiple realities which confront him or her. Accordingly, the individual''s life-world divides itself into the dimensions of time, space, the social world and various reality spheres which form the boundaries or transcendences that the I has to understand and integrate. Signs and symbols are described as appresentational modes which stand for experiences originating in the different spheres of the life-world within the world of everyday life, within which they can be communicated, thereby establishing intersubjectivity. Schutz''s theory of the symbol explains how social entities – such as nations, states or religious groups – are symbolically integrated to become components of the individual''s life-world. The following paper reconstructs Schutz''s concept of the symbol as a crucial component of his theory of the life-world, which is seen as an outstanding phenomenological contribution to the theory of the sign and the symbol in general.
|Keywords||phenomenology Schutz Husserl Cassirer Jaspers Luckmann life-world symbol sign intersubjectivity communication|
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References found in this work BETA
Ernst Cassirer (1944/1992). An Essay on Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture. Yale University Press.
Maurice Natanson (1990). Anonymity: A Study in the Philosophy of Alfred Schutz. Human Studies 13 (1):97-101.
Alfred Schutz (1982). Life Forms and Meaning Structure. Routledge & K. Paul.
Eric Voegelin (1952/1987). The New Science of Politics: An Introduction. University of Chicago Press.
Thomas Luckmann (1970). On the Boundaries of the Social World. In Alfred Schutz & Maurice Alexander Natanson (eds.), Phenomenology and Social Reality. The Hague,Nijhoff 73--100.
Citations of this work BETA
Jochen Dreher (2009). Phenomenology of Friendship: Construction and Constitution of an Existential Social Relationship. [REVIEW] Human Studies 32 (4):401-417.
Michael Staudigl (2007). Towards a Phenomenological Theory of Violence: Reflections Following Merleau-Ponty and Schutz. [REVIEW] Human Studies 30 (3):233 - 253.
Kwang-ki Kim & Tim Berard (2009). Typification in Society and Social Science: The Continuing Relevance of Schutz's Social Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Human Studies 32 (3):263 - 289.
Wing-Chung Ho (2008). The Transcendence and Non-Discursivity of the Lifeworld. Human Studies 31 (3):323 - 342.
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