David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (2):333-350 (2013)
The use of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in food-producing animals has been linked to antibiotic resistant infections in humans. Although this practice has been banned in Europe, the U.S. regulatory authorities have been slow to act. This paper discusses the regulatory hurdles and ethical dilemmas of banning this practice within the context of the risk analysis model (risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication). Specific issues include unethical use of scientific uncertainty during the risk assessment phase, the rejection of the precautionary principle leading to ineffective risk management, and the criticality of risk communication to build consensus and force action. The underlying root cause is a conflict of values (Type I ethical problem) among key stakeholders, which is examined in depth along with an ethical analysis using public health ethical values
|Keywords||Antibiotic resistance Feeding of antibiotics to farm animals Growth promotion agents Risk management Ethical analysis Type I and type II errors|
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References found in this work BETA
Jonny Anomaly (2009). Harm to Others: The Social Cost of Antibiotics in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (5):423-435.
Nancy M. Baum, Sarah E. Gollust, Susan D. Goold & Peter D. Jacobson (2007). Looking Ahead: Addressing Ethical Challenges in Public Health Practice. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4):657-667.
Wesley R. Dean & H. Morgan Scott (2005). Antagonistic Synergy: Process and Paradox in the Development of New Agricultural Antimicrobial Regulations. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 22 (4):479-489.
Austin Bradford Hill (1965). The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295-300.
James Jr (2003). On Finding Solutions to Ethical Problems in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5):439-457.
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