David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Cognitive Science 35 (2):211-250 (2011)
Most models of response time (RT) in elementary cognitive tasks implicitly assume that the speed-accuracy trade-off is continuous: When payoffs or instructions gradually increase the level of speed stress, people are assumed to gradually sacrifice response accuracy in exchange for gradual increases in response speed. This trade-off presumably operates over the entire range from accurate but slow responding to fast but chance-level responding (i.e., guessing). In this article, we challenge the assumption of continuity and propose a phase transition model for RTs and accuracy. Analogous to the fast guess model (Ollman, 1966), our model postulates two modes of processing: a guess mode and a stimulus-controlled mode. From catastrophe theory, we derive two important predictions that allow us to test our model against the fast guess model and against the popular class of sequential sampling models. The first prediction—hysteresis in the transitions between guessing and stimulus-controlled behavior—was confirmed in an experiment that gradually changed the reward for speed versus accuracy. The second prediction—bimodal RT distributions—was confirmed in an experiment that required participants to respond in a way that is intermediate between guessing and accurate responding.
|Keywords||Reponse times Speed‐accuracy trade‐off Phase transitions Fast guess model Catastrophe theory Sequential sampling models|
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Citations of this work BETA
Michael A. Riley, Kevin Shockley & Guy van Orden (2012). Learning From the Body About the Mind. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):21-34.
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Han L. J. van der Maas & Simon Farrell (2012). Abstract Concepts Require Concrete Models: Why Cognitive Scientists Have Not Yet Embraced Nonlinearly Coupled, Dynamical, Self-Organized Critical, Synergistic, Scale-Free, Exquisitely Context-Sensitive, Interaction-Dominant, Multifractal, Interdependent Brain-Body-Niche Systems. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):87-93.
Carolyn Ranti, Christopher H. Chatham & David Badre (2015). Parallel Temporal Dynamics in Hierarchical Cognitive Control. Cognition 142:205-229.
Steven M. Southwick, Robert H. Pietrzak, Dennis S. Charney & John H. Krystal (2015). Resilience: The Role of Accurate Appraisal, Thresholds, and Socioenvironmental Factors. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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