David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):565-584 (2005)
A substantial body of research has established that even when we are not consciously aware of the faces of others we are nevertheless sensitive to, and impacted by their facial expression. In this paper, we consider this body of research from a new perspective by examining the functions of unconscious perception revealed by these studies. A consideration of the literature from this perspective highlights that existing research methods are limited when it comes to revealing possible functions of unconscious perception. The critical shortcoming is that in all of the methods, the perceived facial expression remains outside of awareness. This is a problem because there are good reasons to believe that one important function of unconsciously perceived negative faces is to attract attention so that they are consciously perceived; such conscious perception, however, is never allowed with existing methodologies. We discuss recent studies of emotional face perception under conditions of visual search that address this issue directly. Further, we suggest that methodologies that do not examine cognitive processes as they occur in more natural settings may result in fundamental misunderstandings of human cognition
|Keywords||*Cognitive Processes *Consciousness States *Emotions *Face Perception *Visual Search Awareness Cognitions Facial Expressions Functional Analysis|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
J. Cheesman & Philip M. Merikle (1986). Distinguishing Conscious From Unconscious Perceptual Processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40:343-67.
Philip M. Merikle & Daniel Smilek (2001). Perception Without Awareness: Perspectives From Cognitive Psychology. Cognition 79 (1):115-34.
Larry L. Jacoby (1991). A Process Dissociation Framework: Separating Automatic From Intentional Uses of Memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30:513-41.
Anthony J. Marcel (1983). Conscious and Unconscious Perception: Experiments on Visual Masking and Word Recognition. Cognitive Psychology 15:197-237.
Elaine Fox, Victoria Lester, Riccardo Russo, R. J. Bowles, Alessio Pichler & Kevin Dutton (2000). Facial Expressions of Emotion: Are Angry Faces Detected More Efficiently? Cognition and Emotion 14 (1):61-92.
Citations of this work BETA
M. Ida Gobbini, Jason D. Gors, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Howard C. Hughes & Carlo Cipolli (2013). Processing of Invisible Social Cues. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):765-770.
Kathleen M. Mak-Fan, William F. Thompson & Robin Ea Green (2011). Visual Search for Schematic Emotional Faces Risks Perceptual Confound. Cognition and Emotion 25 (4):573-584.
Pessi Lyyra, Jari K. Hietanen & Piia Astikainen (2014). Anger Superiority Effect for Change Detection and Change Blindness. Consciousness and Cognition 30:1-12.
Vanessa LoBue (2015). Behavioral Evidence for a Continuous Approach to the Perception of Emotionally Valenced Stimuli. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
Similar books and articles
William D. S. Killgore & Deborah A. Yurgelun-Todd (2007). Unconscious Processing of Facial Affect in Children and Adolescents. Social Neuroscience 2 (1):28-47.
Michela Balconi & Claudio Lucchiari (2007). Consciousness and Emotional Facial Expression Recognition: Subliminal/Supraliminal Stimulation Effect on N200 and P300 ERPs. [REVIEW] Journal of Psychophysiology 21 (2):100-108.
Temre N. Davies & Donald D. Hoffman (2002). Psychophysical Studies of Expressions of Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):458-459.
John D. Eastwood, From Unconscious to Conscious Perception: Emotionally Expressive Faces and Visual Awareness.
U. Dimberg, M. Thunberg & K. Elmehed (2000). Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions. Psychological Science 11 (1):86-89.
Maarten Milders, Arash Sahraie, Sarah Logan & Niamh Donnellon (2006). Awareness of Faces is Modulated by Their Emotional Meaning. Emotion 6 (1):10-17.
Catherine M. Herba, Maike Heining, Andrew W. Young, Michael Browning, Philip J. Benson, Mary L. Phillips & Jeffrey A. Gray (2007). Conscious and Nonconscious Discrimination of Facial Expressions. Visual Cognition 15 (1):36-47.
Michela Balconi & Claudio Lucchiari (2005). Consciousness, Emotion and Face: An Event-Related Potentials (ERP) Study. In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), Consciousness & Emotion: Agency, Conscious Choice, and Selective Perception. John Benjamins 121.
Beatrice de Gelder (2005). Nonconscious Emotions: New Findings and Perspectives on Nonconscious Facial Expression Recognition and its Voice and Whole-Body Contexts. In Lisa Feldman Barrett, Paula M. Niedenthal & Piotr Winkielman (eds.), Emotion and Consciousness. Guilford Press 123-149.
Elaine Fox (2002). Processing Emotional Facial Expressions: The Role of Anxiety and Awareness. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 2 (1):52-63.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads27 ( #126,010 of 1,781,279 )
Recent downloads (6 months)5 ( #123,275 of 1,781,279 )
How can I increase my downloads?