David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophy of Science 53 (1):52-64 (1986)
It is possible for a causal factor to raise the probability of a second factor in some situations while lowering the probability of the second factor in other situations. Must a genuine cause always raise the probability of a genuine effect of it? When it does not always do so, an "interaction" with some third factor may be the reason. I discuss causal interaction from the perspectives of Giere's counterfactual characterization of probabilistic causal connection (1979, 1980) and the "contextual unanimity" model developed by, among others, Cartwright (1979) and Skyrms (1980). I argue that the contextual unanimity theory must exercise care, in a new way that seems to have gone unnoticed, in order to adequately accommodate the phenomenon, and that the counterfactual theory must be substantially revised; although it will still, pending clarification of a second kind of revision, be unable to accommodate a kind of interaction exemplified in cases like those described by Sober (1982)
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Citations of this work BETA
John W. Carroll (1991). Property-Level Causation? Philosophical Studies 63 (3):245 - 270.
Jordan Howard Sobel (1990). Newcomblike Problems. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):224-255.
Greg Ray (1992). Probabilistic Causality Reexamined. Erkenntnis 36 (2):219 - 244.
Ellery Eells & Elliott Sober (1987). Old Problems for a New Theory: Mayo on Giere's Theory of Causation. Philosophical Studies 52 (3):291 - 307.
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