David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Mind and Society 5 (1):105-122 (2006)
This paper considers different subjective measures of conscious and unconscious knowledge in a concept formation paradigm. In particular, free verbal reports are compared with two subjective measures, the zero-correlation and the guessing criteria, based on trial-by-trial confidence ratings (a type of on-line verbal report). Despite the fact that free verbal reports are frequently dismissed as being insensitive measures of conscious knowledge, a considerable bulk of research on implicit learning has traditionally relied on this measure of consciousness, because it is widely regarded as almost self-evident that the content of any conscious state that is intentional and conceptual can be expressed verbally. However, we found that the most recently developed subjective measures based on trial-by-trial confidence ratings provided a more sensitive measure of conscious and unconscious knowledge than free verbal reports. In a complementary way, the qualitative pattern of the free report and the confidence measures were similar, providing further evidence for the validity of the latter
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Citations of this work BETA
Weiwen Chen, Xiuyan Guo, Jinghua Tang, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2011). Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Form–Meaning Connections. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1751-1760.
Xiuyan Guo, Li Zheng, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang, Chao Chen, Lei Zhang, Wendy Ma & Zoltan Dienes (2011). Acquisition of Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge of Semantic Prosody. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):417-425.
Vincian Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans (2006). First and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.
Anna-Marie Armstrong & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Subliminal Understanding of Negation: Unconscious Control by Subliminal Processing of Word Pairs. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1022-1040.
Kanji Tanaka & Katsumi Watanabe (2014). Implicit Transfer of Reversed Temporal Structure in Visuomotor Sequence Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (3):565-579.
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