David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Mind and Society 5 (1):105-122 (2006)
This paper considers different subjective measures of conscious and unconscious knowledge in a concept formation paradigm. In particular, free verbal reports are compared with two subjective measures, the zero-correlation and the guessing criteria, based on trial-by-trial confidence ratings (a type of on-line verbal report). Despite the fact that free verbal reports are frequently dismissed as being insensitive measures of conscious knowledge, a considerable bulk of research on implicit learning has traditionally relied on this measure of consciousness, because it is widely regarded as almost self-evident that the content of any conscious state that is intentional and conceptual can be expressed verbally. However, we found that the most recently developed subjective measures based on trial-by-trial confidence ratings provided a more sensitive measure of conscious and unconscious knowledge than free verbal reports. In a complementary way, the qualitative pattern of the free report and the confidence measures were similar, providing further evidence for the validity of the latter
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Xiuyan Guo, Li Zheng, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang, Chao Chen, Lei Zhang, Wendy Ma & Zoltan Dienes (2011). Acquisition of Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge of Semantic Prosody. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):417-425.
Anna-Marie Armstrong & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Subliminal Understanding of Negation: Unconscious Control by Subliminal Processing of Word Pairs. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1022-1040.
Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
Fengying Li, Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Implicit Learning of Mappings Between Forms and Metaphorical Meanings. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):174-183.
Eleni Ziori & Zoltán Dienes (2012). The Time Course of Implicit and Explicit Concept Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):204-216.
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