David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):73-91 (2004)
Unconscious processes, by whatever name they may be known , are invariably operationalized by the dissociation paradigm, any situation involving the dissociation between two indicators , one of availability and the other, of accessibility , such that, ε>α. Subliminal perception has been traditionally defined by a special case of the dissociation paradigm in which availability exceeds accessibility when accessibility is null . Construct validity issues bedevil all dissociation paradigms since it is not clear what might constitute appropriate indicators that, moreover, are pure and exhaustive. Semantic and theoretic drifts in the recent literature—e.g., the confusion of different versions of the dissociation paradigm, the equation of conscious–unconscious with direct–indirect tests, and the foisting of the criterion of qualitative differences—have tended to undermine emerging theoretic parsimony. On the other hand, a crucial factor has been left out of theory development: time. Both ε and α can rise and fall over time, often asynchronously, and so dissociations may wax and wane and, even, reverse over time. Some laboratory evidence suggests that accessibility measures , as they approach chance, may actually dip below chance . If so, d′=0 , could be an averaging artifact of positive and negative d′s. Conscious accessibility is not either–or but more or less, and variable over time
|Keywords||*Dissociation *Subliminal Perception *Subliminal Stimulation *Time|
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Citations of this work BETA
Ying-Hsuan Lin, Chih-Chang Tsai, William C. Sullivan, Po-Ju Chang & Chun-Yen Chang (2014). Does Awareness Effect the Restorative Function and Perception of Street Trees? Frontiers in Psychology 5.
Ziv Peremen & Dominique Lamy (2014). Comparing Unconscious Processing During Continuous Flash Suppression and Meta-Contrast Masking Just Under the Limen of Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
Dorit Wenke, Stephen M. Fleming & Patrick Haggard (2010). Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control Over Effects of Action. Cognition 115 (1):26-38.
Valerian Chambon & Patrick Haggard (2012). Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance. Cognition 125 (3):441-451.
Anders Sand (2016). Reversed Priming Effects May Be Driven by Misperception Rather Than Subliminal Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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