Does priming with awareness reflect explicit contamination? An approach with a response-time measure in word-stem completion

Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):459-473 (2005)
Abstract
The present experiment investigates the involvement of awareness in functional dissociations between explicit and implicit tests. In the explicit condition, participants attempted to recall lexically or semantically studied words using word stems. In the implicit condition, they were instructed to complete each stem with the first word which came to mind. Subjective awareness was subsequently measured on an item-by-item basis. As voluntary retrieval strategies are known to be time consuming, the time taken to complete each stem was recorded. In the explicit task, semantically studied words were associated with higher levels of recall and faster response times than lexically studied words. By contrast, in the implicit task, these effects failed to reach significance, although deep encoding made the contents of memory more accessible to awareness. As expected, performance was slower in the explicit than in the implicit task, but in the latter condition, times to produce old words with and without awareness were comparable, and both of these responses were produced more quickly than control words. This finding suggests that although participants may become aware in implicit paradigms, they do not adopt voluntary retrieval strategies
Keywords *Implicit Learning  *Priming  *Reaction Time  *Recall (Learning)  *Word Recognition
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