On the Modal Definability of Simulability by Finite Transitive Models

Studia Logica 98 (3):347-373 (2011)
Abstract
We show that given a finite, transitive and reflexive Kripke model 〈 W , ≼, ⟦ ⋅ ⟧ 〉 and $${w \in W}$$ , the property of being simulated by w (i.e., lying on the image of a literalpreserving relation satisfying the ‘forth’ condition of bisimulation) is modally undefinable within the class of S4 Kripke models. Note the contrast to the fact that lying in the image of w under a bi simulation is definable in the standard modal language even over the class of K4 models, a fairly standard result for which we also provide a proof. We then propose a minor extension of the language adding a sequent operator $${\natural}$$ (‘tangle’) which can be interpreted over Kripke models as well as over topological spaces. Over finite Kripke models it indicates the existence of clusters satisfying a specified set of formulas, very similar to an operator introduced by Dawar and Otto. In the extended language $${{\sf L}^+ = {\sf L}^{\square\natural}}$$ , being simulated by a point on a finite transitive Kripke model becomes definable, both over the class of (arbitrary) Kripke models and over the class of topological S4 models. As a consequence of this we obtain the result that any class of finite, transitive models over finitely many propositional variables which is closed under simulability is also definable in L + , as well as Boolean combinations of these classes. From this it follows that the μ -calculus interpreted over any such class of models is decidable
Keywords Simulation  bisimulation  modal logic  spatial logic  definability
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