The evolution of language: A comparative review [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):193-203 (2005)
For many years the evolution of language has been seen as a disreputable topic, mired in fanciful “just so stories” about language origins. However, in the last decade a new synthesis of modern linguistics, cognitive neuroscience and neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory has begun to make important contributions to our understanding of the biology and evolution of language. I review some of this recent progress, focusing on the value of the comparative method, which uses data from animal species to draw inferences about language evolution. Discussing speech first, I show how data concerning a wide variety of species, from monkeys to birds, can increase our understanding of the anatomical and neural mechanisms underlying human spoken language, and how bird and whale song provide insights into the ultimate evolutionary function of language. I discuss the “descended larynx” of humans, a peculiar adaptation for speech that has received much attention in the past, which despite earlier claims is not uniquely human. Then I will turn to the neural mechanisms underlying spoken language, pointing out the difficulties animals apparently experience in perceiving hierarchical structure in sounds, and stressing the importance of vocal imitation in the evolution of a spoken language. Turning to ultimate function, I suggest that communication among kin (especially between parents and offspring) played a crucial but neglected role in driving language evolution. Finally, I briefly discuss phylogeny, discussing hypotheses that offer plausible routes to human language from a non-linguistic chimp-like ancestor. I conclude that comparative data from living animals will be key to developing a richer, more interdisciplinary understanding of our most distinctively human trait: language.
|Keywords||language evolution speech syntax semantics vocal imitation laryngeal descent sexual selection kin selection theory of mind homology analogy mirror neurons|
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Citations of this work BETA
Christina Behme (2008). Languages as Evolving Organisms – the Solution to the Logical Problem of Language Evolution? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):512-513.
W. Tecumseh Fitch (2008). Co-Evolution of Phylogeny and Glossogeny: There is No “Logical Problem of Language Evolution”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):521-522.
Timothy J. Gallagher (2011). G.H. Mead's Understanding of the Nature of Speech in the Light of Contemporary Research. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (1):40-62.
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