David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99:576-584 (2008)
Counterfactual reasoning is broadly implicated in causal claims made by historians. However, this point is more generally recognized and accepted by economic historians than historians of science. A good site for examining alternative appeals to counterfactuals is to consider "what if" the Scientific Revolution had not occurred in seventeenth-century Europe. Two alternative interpretations are analyzed: that the revolution would eventually have happened somewhere else ("overdeterminism") or that the revolution would not have happened at all ("underdeterminism"). Broadly speaking, these two interpretations correspond to the respective attitudes of philosophers and historians to the development of science. However, a case is presented for synthesizing the two interpretations into a normative historiography of science that would allow past and present concerns to interrogate each other. This exercise in counterfactual reasoning can be imagined in the spirit of a time traveler who aims to persuade, rather than simply understand, the natives he or she encounters
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Katherina Kinzel (2015). State of the Field: Are the Results of Science Contingent or Inevitable? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 52:55-66.
Steve Fuller (2010). Thinking the Unthinkable as a Radical Scientific Project. Critical Review 22 (4):397-413.
James Elwick (2012). Layered History: Styles of Reasoning as Stratified Conditions of Possibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):619-627.
Steve Fuller (2013). Deviant Interdisciplinarity as Philosophical Practice: Prolegomena to Deep Intellectual History. Synthese 190 (11):1899-1916.
Steve Fuller (2012). The Art of Being Human: A Project for General Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):113-123.
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