When all is considered: Evaluative learning does not require contingency awareness

Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):567-573 (2001)
We argue that the effects of evaluative learning may occur (a) without conscious perception of the affective stimuli, (b) without awareness of the stimulus contingencies, and (c) without any awareness that learning has occurred at all. Whether the three experiments reported in our target article provide conclusive evidence for either or any of these assertions is discussed in the commentaries of De Houwer and Field. We respond with the argument that when considered alongside other studies carried out over the past few decades, our experiments provide compelling evidence for a theory that posits a dissociation between evaluative learning and contingency awareness.
Keywords *Conditioning  *Distraction  *Emotional Content  *Learning  *Stimulus Parameters  Awareness  Subliminal Perception  Tactual Perception  Visual Perception
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DOI 10.1006/ccog.2001.0531
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