A liberal conception of multiple realizability

Philosophical Studies 132 (3):467-494 (2007)
Abstract
While the concept of multiple realizability is widely used, it is seldom rigorously characterized. This paper defends a liberal conception of multiple realizability as sameness of type through _any_ differences in the (lower-level) conditions that give rise to instances of that type. This kind of “sameness through difference” is contrasted with another type of asymmetric dependency relation between properties, multiple _specification_. This liberal conception is then defended from objections, and it is augmented by a concept of relativized multiple realizability. The last section presents a survey of the ontological, explanatory, and methodological consequences of this analysis of multiple realizability.
Keywords GENERAL-THEORY   REDUCTION   KINDS
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D. M. Armstrong (1993). A World of States of Affairs. Philosophical Perspectives 7:429-440.

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